Tuesday, May 28, 2013

Using decyl glucoside in our products: What is it?

There's an increased interest in using decyl glucoside as a surfactant because of its reputation for being gentle to mild and because it's considered a green ingredient (or at least ECOcert), so how can we use it in our products?

First, what is decyl glucoside? (Condensed from this post...) Decyl glucoside is a very mild non-ionic cleanser that works well as both a primary or secondary surfactant as it is a good foamer. It has an alkaline pH - 7 to 9.5 - so you'll have to bring your pH down with citric acid or another acidic ingredient to ensure it reaches the right pH for skin and hair. (Another data sheet states the pH is 11.5 at 20%! EEK!) It is about 48% to 52% active ingredients in the surfactant, and the suggested use is 4% to 40%. This is a great ingredient for a conditioning shampoo or body wash as it improves the cationic conditioning in your products, as well as offer foam stabilization. (Data sheet for Plantaren 2000)

Note that it is non-ionic, while most of our surfactants are anionic. It can be used with cationic or positively charged ingredients, like cationic polymers, to create 2-in-1 or conditioning products. This means it cannot be thickened with salt.

It is a good emulsifier, meaning you don't need to add other solubilizers - like polysorbate 20 or 80 - if you want to add low levels of oils, fragrances, or essential oils. And it's a good and stable foamer, although it's not the best choice for something like a bubble bath as it isn't a flash foamer. (Some people complain about the quality of the foam as being too thin, so the suggestion is made to use a secondary surfactant like cocamidopropyl betaine.) It's good as a secondary surfactant because it can help stabilize foam.

As an aside...I never solubilize my fragrances because all the surfactants have at least minimal solublizing abilities. I don't suggest using anything to add your fragrance or essential oils to your surfactant based products because they can reduce foam. 

There are two big problems when using decyl glucoside in our products: pH and thickening. Join me tomorrow when we take a look at those topics!

And before you ask why your decyl glucoside is clear while mine is cloudy...it's about the cloud point or titer point of surfactants. Mine has been kept in the cold, so I need to heat it before I use it in something so I can make it go back to its lovely clear colour. This what it should look like!

And if you want to know where to find it...check the FAQ section on suppliers to see if there's one near you. I have purchased mine from Voyageur Soap & Candle (Surrey, B.C.), the Personal Formulator (America), and Ingredients to Die For (America). 


Kirstin said...

Hi Susan

I'm so glad you're working with decyl glucoside. I've been making test batches of green liquid soap. I have used decyl glucoside with cocamidopropyl betaine and they work well together. Citric acid does the trick to lower the pH. However, I'm finding that my soapnd cellulose (used to thicken) is separating slightly, but I think it's because of the preservative I'm using - Euxyl PE 9010. A batch previously made without the preservative turned out perfectly.

I'm eagerly waiting to read about your views and batches :)

Anonymous said...

You mentioned the Plantaren 2000 as being a good Decyl Glucoside, but it has the draw back of not thickening with salt and unstable foam. I use a product from the same company BASF, formerly Cognis) called Plantapon 611L which is a combination of Sodium LaurETH Sulfate, Lauryl Glucoside and Cocoamidopropyl Betaine. It foams, it's green, and it can be thickened with salt!

Laura Elias, The Pronunciation Coach said...

I am looking for soaps WITHOUT glucosides -- it seems that glucosides feed candida. I have had major issues with candida overgrowth in my skin (face and hands) in recent months, and when I quit using shampoo with glucoside, there was a major improvement.

Susan Barclay-Nichols said...

Hi Laura. I've never heard that before and couldn't find any scientific references for it. But then again, who am I to tell you what your skin can handle?

There are no soaps that contain glucosides. Soaps have an alkaline pH of over 8 and are made from saponified oils. Shampoos and other bubbly, lathery things that aren't soap like body washes have a pH of 6 and under (acidic), and are made from surfactants. Glucosides are surfactants, so you'd only find them in non-soap things. (I'm a firm believer in teachable moments, hence all the sharing!)

Having said that, there are so many shampoos that don't contain decyl glucoside that it should be easy to find one. (I think it'll be easier to find one that doesn't have it than one that does have it!) Or make your own without glucoside. I would suggest, though, that considering how little glucoside would be found in a commercial product, that you be aware of the other surfactants and extracts and such that are in the product as they are just as likely to be an issue. Again, not trying to dismiss your concerns or experiences, but it's seems there are all kinds of botanical ingredients included in products these days that are known problems or allergens that people ignore in favour of what seems like more obvious choices. I would hate for you to invest in a new shampoo only to find it contains something problematic.

Karen Rysavy said...

Hi Susan, I appreciate your blog so much! Thank you for sharing your knowledge. I am here today researching decyl glucoside for potential use in my homemade toothpaste. I love it (and only make it for personal use). I miss having a foaming agent, but I have been really reluctant to experiment with putting surfactants in my mouth. :P And then there's the whole 'not broken, don't fix it' issue... After several years of great dental checkups I find myself still missing the foam in my toothpaste, however, so I am ready to take the plunge. Do you think decyl glucoside is worth trying for this purpose, or is there another ingredient you can recommend? Thanks for any time you can give this.

The Laughing Tree said...

Hello Susan! Thank you so much for your blog! I was hoping you might be able to assist me with this formula. This is for a natural foaming cleanser that I dispense from an airless pump bottle, so it dispenses as a sudsy foam. A couple of things with this formula I am needing help with, as it is not a favorite of mine but I like the cleansing ingredients.

1. I am looking to replace the Polysorbate 20 and Polyglucose with Decyl Glucoside. Will this work? If so, do I need to add in Citric Acid because the PH is too high? What would that ratio be?

2. The formula does not blend well and the usually separates upon sitting. Is there something I should be adding to help with the blending? Will the Decyl alleviate this issue?

3. I find it to be a "soupy foam" and not a light fluffy foam, is there something I should add or delete to help with this?

4. I also find it a bit "sticky" could that be the Polyglucose? Maybe by using the Decyl it will be silkier on the skin?

Thank you Susan so much for looking at this!

Foaming Cleanser Concentrate


Blend together

500ml Witch Hazel
10ml benzoin (warm to liquefy)
2000ml water
20ml potassium sorbate
Add and blend
10ml xanthan gum
Blend until thick
Pour into jug
500ml lavender hydrosol
1000ml rose hydrosol
5ml carrot tissue infused with sunflower oil
Seaweed, aloe concentrate, organic rosehip oil, avocado oil, evening primrose oil, red clover tincture, calendula tincture vitamin e, orange e.o. spearmint e.o.
Add in:
7oz polyglucose and fills up to 4000ml with water and gently shake.

Susan Barclay-Nichols said...

I'm sorry, but I can't offer help for a formula written in volume measurements and without all the ingredients listed, such as the seaweed etc.