Monday, April 11, 2011

Duplicating products: Trilogy gentle face exfoliant

In this post, Jen W suggested we take a look at the Trilogy gentle face exfoliant (if you want to suggest a product for duplicating, then hie thyself there and make a comment!).

Remember the six steps of duplicating:

Step 1: Get the complete ingredient list.
Step 2: Look at what each ingredient brings to the product.
Step 3: Figure out what's important in the recipe.
Step 4: Figure out how much you're going to use of each ingredient.
Step 5: Formulate a starting out recipe in percentages and try it.
Step 6: Tweak the recipe to get the skin feel and viscosity you want.

Let's take a look at the ingredients...

Aqua (Purified Spring Water), Kaolin Clay, Prunus Amygdalus Dulcis (Sweet Almond) Oil, Glycerol Stearate, Simmondsia Chinensis (Jojoba) Oil, Glycerin, Cetearyl Alcohol, Zinc Oxide, Rosa Canina (Rosehip) Seed Oil, Oenothera Biennis (Evening Primrose) Oil, Camellia Sinensis (Camellia) Oil, Sodium Stearoyl Glutamate, Tocopheryl Acetate, Calendula Officinalis Flower Extract (and) Gl, Mel (Honey), Macadamia Ternafolia (Macadamia Nut) Oil, Phenoxyethanol, Ethylhexylglycerin, Parfum, Geraniol, Citronellol, Linalool, *Components of Natural Essential Oils

Next step, analyze the ingredients. (Click on the links to get more information on each ingredient.)

Water: Our solvent.

Kaolin clay: This clay is good for absorbing oil and can behave as a light exfoliant. It will dramatically thicken the product. You could use any clay you like here.

Sweet almond oil: A light, slightly greasy feeling oil.

Glycerol Stearate: A low HLB emulsifier that can be combined with a high HLB emulsifier to create an emulsification system. It's probably used at 2% or less, depending upon the HLB of the formula.

Jojoba oil: A waxy feeling oil.

Glycerin: A humectant.

Cetearyl alcohol: A high HLB emulsifier that can be combined with a low HLB emulsifier to create an emulsification system. It's probably used at 2% or less. It can also be used as a thickener, and it has a waxy kind of feeling.

Zinc oxide: This is used as an anti-chafing and soothing ingredient, but you're washing it off, so I'm not really sure why it's here. Maybe as a whitener?

Rosehip seed oil: An exotic oil filled with loads of Vitamin C and carotenoids. It can be very irritating to people with acne.

Evening primrose oil: A dry feeling exotic oil filled with gamma-linoleic acid.

Camellia seed oil: A dry feeling exotic oil derived from tea seeds. It's filled with oleic acid, which is very moisturizing.

Sodium stearoyl glutamate: An emulsifier and skin conditioner. Generally used at 0.5% to 1%.

Tocopherol acetate: Vitamin E, our anti-oxidant.

Calendula extract: Great for anti-inflammatory and soothing applications.

Honey: Probably used as a humectant and for label appeal, as there's unlikely to be more than 1% of it in this recipe.

Macadamia nut oil: A dry feeling oil with palmitoleic acid, which can help with scratch and wound repair.

Phenoxyethanol: Preservative. Pair with another preservative with better fungal killing abilities.

Ethylhexylglycerin: Preservative. Used as an alternative to parabens. Could be used here to suspend the phenoxyethanol.

Parfum: Makes it smell pretty!

Geraniol, Citronellol, Linalool: Found in the essential oils, which they don't list individually.

What do we have here? We have an oil in water lotion with an emulsifier, fragrance, and preservative. We have the clay as an exfoliant, and you want to make sure you preserve this really really well as clay can be a great place for the nasties to grow. With all these dry feeling oils, this won't be a really greasy product.

What's important here? I'm not seeing any ingredients I don't think are important, but I don't think we need the tiny titches (maybe 1% to 2%) of the various oils. If you don't have all the oils they list, pick one dry one and use that as most of your oil phase. I'd go with evening primrose because it's filled with all kinds of goodness and I have a lot in the house, but any of them will do. If you really want to replicate this, then use a titch of each oil and go from there. (I wouldn't use the rosehip oil if you have oily or acne prone skin because you could break out, and it's not cheap!)

I think we could leave out the sodium stearoyl glutamate (as I have no idea where to find this) and the two emulsifiers and use something like Polawax. If you really want to use the two emulsifiers, you can do that - just follow the HLB system and figure out how much you'll need. (I really need to do more in depth posts about creating your own emulsifier! For now, click here for the overview and click here for an example.)

What can we tell by analyzing the ingredient list? If we figured out the HLB of all these ingredients, we could figure out exactly how much glycerol stearate and cetearyl alcohol might be in this product.  (With all the ingredients at about an HLB value of 7, it's likely to be around 7 for the HLB value, so we'd want about 2% for each emulsifier.) So it's safe to say that everything under the glycerol stearate is below 2%. So we know our main ingredients are the water, kaolin clay, and sweet almond oil, with everything else at 2% or lower.

How do we figure out how much to use of each ingredient? I have a clay mask recipe I like that has about 22% clay in it. This seems like it would be a good amount, so I'll go with that as the clay amount. I have no idea how thick this product might be, so I think I'll start with a 60% water lotion recipe and work from there. (I know this might seem like it'll be thick, but I have to account for 20% clay, which means I'm already down to using 80% of my other ingredients! We aren't going to include any thickeners or butters, so it'll be a thinner feeling 60% water lotion.) Feel free to use any clays you like for your skin type.

I'll include 2% zinc oxide in the product as I'm trying to use all the ingredients. Both of these will be added in the cool down phase.

I'm going to roll all the oils into one by using 8% evening primrose oil. You could use 2% macadamia nut, camellia seed, rosehip, and evening primrose oils, but I really want the goodness I get from evening primrose skin rather than little bits of goodness from the other oils. Choose any of these oils as your main oil or use those titches. I'm going to use 2% jojoba oil because it does offer some great qualities and will offer a little thickening to the product. I'm also using 10% sweet almond oil in the product as it is one of the main oils. Again, as with any lotion, feel free to use the oils you have in your workshop!

So with 20% oils - 8% evening primrose oil, 10% sweet almond oil, and 2% jojoba oil - I'll need how much Polawax? 5%, because we use 1/4 of the oil phase amount as our emulsifier. Adapt this for other emulsifiers you might want to use. (BTMS-50 might be nice here because it would be conditioning and feel drier.)

So all we have left is 0.5% Vitamin E (anti-oxidant), 1% fragrance oil (which I would leave out for a facial product), and 1% of our preservative. Normally I'd use liquid Germall Plus, but I'm using Germaben II here because clay can be hard to preserve. Use the preservative you prefer when making harder to preserve products. (And do not leave it out! This could go bad in days! Even with the preservative, I tend to put clay masks in the fridge and only make enough for a few weeks!)

Okay, so we have our recipe. We just add 47.5% water to the mix to get a lotion that works out to 50.5% water (3% glycerin is included in this amount). So let's create a draft recipe!

47.5% water
3% glycerin

8% evening primrose oil (or combinations of other oils)
10% sweet almond oil
2% jojoba oil
5% emulsifier

0.5% Vitamin E
1% fragrance oil (optional - leave it out and increase the water by 1%)
1% Germaben II
20% kaolin or other clay
2% zinc oxide

Use the basic lotion making instructions for this recipe. When you get to the cool down phase, sift the clay into the lotion and mix very well. Sift the zinc oxide into the recipe and mix very well. Allow to cool, put in a jar or bottle, and use as you need.

Join me tomorrow for an aside on figuring out the shelf life of our products!

If you find this too thick, adjust the clay to 10% and increase the water to 57.5%.

Join me tomorrow for more fun duplicating products!


Pam said...

Hi Susan,

I was surprised to learn that clay could/would be used in anything other than a mask. I thought that the clay would block the pores or at best interfere with cleansing the face.

Jen W said...

Thanks so much for looking at this product for me!

The strange thing about this product is that on the tube it says that it uses Jojoba beads, but it's no where to be found in the ingredient list.

Either way, I played around with making something like this, but adding Jojoba beads, superfine pumice, and some almond meal. It feels amazing!

Ellbie said...


I am definately going to try this.

Anonymous said...

Hey Susan - This gentle face exfoliant recipe is another one of my favourites from your blog. I modified the oils to include macadamia nut oil, and camellia seed oil. I scented it with carrot seed essential oil because its so wonderful for mature skin and also because I love the smell of it.
I first made this recipe about a year and a half ago and I have been making it since. I can't live without it. - Beth

Ann said...

I have just made this product and love it. I kept the evening primrose oil, but I substituted the sweet almond oil for hazelnut oil as I have oily skin and find sweet almond a bit heavy. I used cetearyl glucoside as the emulsifier and microkill cos as the preservative. I also used french pink clay for the clay as that is what I had in my supplies. I love the texture of this product and I love how it makes my skin feel so clean and soft without stripping it. I plan to try it again using bamboo powder, which I'm thinking may increase the exfoliation slightly. Another wonderful product Susan. thank you for the recipe.