Friday, August 28, 2015

Designing your product as a line: Shampoo - what's in it? Other ingredients

Yesterday we took a look at how to formulate a shampoo. Today, we'll take a look at the other ingredients you might add to a shampoo to take it from good to great.

In general, a shampoo contains surfactants, water, preservative, and thickener. Each one is a pretty obvious inclusion - the surfactants clean, the water thins the mixture, the preservative preserves, and the thickener thickens, but a shampoo is about more than just cleaning your hair. We want something that is bubbly and foamy, something that makes our hair feel and smell nice, and something conditioning. So let's take a look at the other ingredients you might include in a shampoo!

A little more on thickeners: From an aesthetic point of view, we need to include these to make the mixture more viscous, which imparts a nicer feeling than pouring something like water on your hands that you have to work hard get into your hair. Plus, most of the thickeners we use will make the surfactant mixture less irritating, which is always a bonus. 

Cationic polymers: Conditioning agents like polyquat 7honeyquat, and Celquat H-100 are water soluble and intended for surfactant mixes. We use up to 5% of these ingredients to leave our hair feeling conditioned. Some people can even use up to 5% as a 2-in-1 shampoo type product - but those people probably have short, virgin hair in good condition! (Celquat H-100 can create quite a gel at 0.5%, so you don't want to use it over 1%!) 

Silicones: We can use dimethicone in our shampoos to increase the feeling of conditioning. You can use water soluble or oil soluble dimethicone at about 2%. (You don't need to add an emulsifier if you're using it around 2% as most detergents are good solubilizers!) 

Film formers: We can add lovely hydrolyzed proteins like Cromoist (oat) or Phytokeratin to create a film over your hair strands, which will decrease the friction. You can use proteins like silk as well, but the lower molecular weight silks will penetrate the hair strand, which means it's a better moisturizer than a film former. Aloe vera works as a film former as well, as will other polysaccharides like cellulose or xanthan gum (which also work as thickeners or gel-formers). 

Moisturizers: Something like Crothix or glycol distearate does double duty in a shampoo, offering thickening as well as moisturizing. You can include many different ingredients to offer moisturizing. Ingredients like water soluble oils can offer oil based moisturizing, while something like glycerin offers oil-free moisturizing. You can use some of the alkyl glucosides (like PEG-7 glyceryl cocoate) or the ethanolamides like cocamide DEA to increase the re-fattening properties of the shampoo. And you can use the lower molecular weight proteins like silk as moisturizers. 

Panthenol: Panthenol is a fantastic ingredient that behaves as a humectant, moisturizer, film former, and shine improver! As little as 2% can decrease the impact of combing forces, and improve the body and texture of your hair as it moisturizes!

Extracts: We can include extracts as functional additives. For instance, white willow bark and salicylic acid are good for dandruff prone hair, and rosemary is a great addition for oily hair. Chamomile and lavender might help calm an angry scalp, while allantoin might help exfoliate and offer some anti-irritancy. 

Fragrance or essential oils: Although you can make a shampoo without fragrance, why bother? The fragrance can be there to make it smell pretty, or you can use essential oils with specific properties (I use an oily hair blend with rosemary, cedarwood, lime or lemon, and sage! I love it!)

Colouring: Again, this isn't essential, but a colour that matches your fragrance can put the shampoo-er in a good frame of mind. I love the green I used in this lime-eucalyptus blend - it just says "I'm fresh! Use me in the morning!" Citrus-y yellow says the same thing to me! 

Wow, that's a lot of stuff! Do we need it all if we're planning on using a conditioner right after washing our hair? Yes...and no. Some of these ingredients do double duty. Some increase mildness, some increase viscosity, some boost conditioning - so let's take a look at these ingredients on Monday to see what we might leave out if we're designing this shampoo as the first step in a line of products.

If you simply can't wait until Monday, may I suggest a trip to the hair care section and the surfactant section of the blog where you can see the original posts these posts are based upon? 

1 comment:

David B. Powers said...

I don't see anything here on "chelating agents"! Perhaps you could devote a whole topic to all the different types of chelating agents, their purpose and function as well as their good and not so good qualities. I think it would be quite informative!