Wednesday, January 29, 2014

I'm still alive...

I'm still here and researching things, but I'm finding it hard to find time to write posts in the midst of work and life in general. I'm on holiday time as of Saturday, so I'll have more time to write and experiment and generally blog more often for a week and a half, so I ask that you bear with me. If you have any ideas for posts or comments or questions to share, please keep them coming. You never know if your off hand comment becomes a three week series on your favourite topic! 




Saturday, January 25, 2014

Weekend Wonderings: Do we need to include a preservative in an anhydrous product?

DO WE NEED TO INCLUDE A PRESERVATIVE IN AN ANHYDROUS PRODUCT? 
In this post, I'm working on a few things, Renee asks: Could I get your thoughts (or feel free to refer me to a post) - I blend a beautiful facial serum with plant oils (rose hip, argan, avocado, etc. That's it - 100% plant oils… I need to think in terms of a preservative but I'd like something on the ecocert list (and I appreciate your prior thoughts on what is natural, what is 'organic', and the concept of minimally processed). I'm keen to stay as 'natural' as possible… but first priority is safety.

The purpose of preservatives is to prevent contamination by microbes, and microbes require water, therefore we only need to put preservatives into products that contain water or that might be exposed to water, like sugar or salt scrubs. If we don't have water, we don't worry about microbes, which means we don't need preservatives in those products.

For non-water containing or anhydrous products, we can add anti-oxidants, or ingredients that will retard the rancidity of our oils. The anti-oxidant we use most is Vitamin E, but there are other oil soluble anti-oxidants, like rosemary oleo extract (ROE). Adding an anti-oxidant to an anhydrous product will extend its shelf life.

In a follow up question, you asked if "Leucidal Advanced Aloe & Liquid Leucidal are ONLY potentially suitable (given the limitations you discussed) with water / oil formulas?" If you read the description of various preservatives in a chart like this, you'll see that they are listed as "water soluble" or "oil soluble". If you have a water based product that uses only water soluble ingredients, you would use a preservative that is water soluble. If you have an oil soluble product, you can use an oil soluble preservative. If you have a product that has both a water phase and an oil phase - like a lotion or conditioner - then you can use a water soluble or oil soluble preservative.

For instance, for a toner, I would use something like liquid Germall Plus as it is water soluble. For a sugar scrub, I would use Phenonip as it is oil soluble. And for a lotion, I could use either of them.

Related posts:
Back to the very basics: What you need to know about making any product (part 1)
Back to the very basics: What you need to know about making any product (part 2)
Newbies section of the blog

Preservatives section of the blog
What contaminants can get into our products
How preservatives work
Water activity and sugar/salt scrubs

HOW DO WE ADJUST THE pH WITH CITRIC ACID? AND CONDITIONING EMULSIFIERS?
In the same post, Marjo asks: I currently have conditioning emulsifier hope maybe you play with that one, too.  I am interested in pH adjusting with citric acid. Measuring must be done in cold phase but the acid has to be dissolved so i wonder what the best routine would be.

As a question, what is the INCI name of the conditioning emulsifier you have. I would bet that what you have is either Incroquat BTMS-25/Rita BTMS-225 or Incroquat BTMS-50 as these are the ones commonly called "conditioning emulsifiers" by our suppliers. If so, I've written extensively on all of them. Do a search or click on the links to the right hand side of the blog. (When I say I've written a lot, I mean it! I have at least 100 recipes on this blog using Incroquat BTMS-50!)

As for adjusting the pH with citric acid, check out this post on the topic. The cool down phase isn't that cold - 45˚C or 113˚C - so the citric acid will dissolve in the lotion properly. Please don't be adjusting pH levels without having something to measure the pH because you could make it too low and that isn't good for our skin.

Related posts:
Adjusting the pH of your products

WHY DID MY SHAMPOO GO WHITE AND CLOUDY?
In the same post, Birgitte asks: I made this shampoo from The Herbarie: (http://www.theherbarie.com/SMC-Taurate-Soft-Bubbles-Shampoo.html)
I used Hydrolyzed Oats instead of silk amino acids and LGP instead of Optiphen. It was wonderful straight off the bat, but then weird things started happening. I left the bottle in my cold bathroom and the shampoo turned from opaque to all white, and the viscosity turned to snot. If I held the bottle under warm water it returned to its 'natural state'. What causes this? The SMC Taurate or the GuarSilk? Is there a way to make products less susceptible to temperature?

Surfactants (and oils) have what is called a titer point or cloud point, which is the point at which they start to solidify. When we see a product like a shampoo, it is likely the clouding we see relates to some of the surfactants in the product solidifying. When it gets solid, it drops to the bottom and goes white. In a colder environment, the viscosity will change and probably feel thicker. Heating the product will make it flow better and allow the surfactants to return to the liquid state. This can happen with other ingredients like our thickeners - I know Crothix will do this when really really cold as does glycol distearate - but it's mostly an oil and surfactant thing.

Related posts:
Weekend Wondering:...Cloud point of a solid surfactant
The importance of temperature - an example
Heating, holding, freezing, and thawing our ingredients
Points of interest relating to temperature

Join me tomorrow for more Weekend Wonderings!

Thursday, January 23, 2014

I'm working on a few things...

But I'd still love to hear from you! I'm working with some new emulsifiers and researching products for kids, but I'm needing some inspiration for the next few weeks! So please, don't hesitate to share your thoughts, your successes, your questions, and so on. I should be back to posting tomorrow, and I'll get to what you have been asking, emailing, messaging, and commenting in the next few days. 

I'm really eager to start the Newbie Tuesday series again and I wonder if we shouldn't revisit the topic if hair care as it seems that it both interests and bewilders you? What do you think? 

Finally, here is a picture of some lotions with new emulsifiers! 


Monday, January 20, 2014

Simplifying a recipe: The oil phase of a body butter

How many times have you encountered a recipe that sounds amazing, only to find out that you're missing a few of the ingredients? You aren't really sure why you need those ingredients, but you really want to make the awesome sounding lotion without having to wait the two to six weeks it'll take to get the supplies. What can you do?

You can simplify the recipe. This is where knowing your ingredients and what they do in a recipe comes in really really handy. Figuring out what is important and why it's there is the first step to being able to really tweak your own recipes.

If you joined me on Friday, we took a really simplified view of just substituting one oil for another. In today's blog post (and the next few days' posts), we're taking a look at how to really makeover this recipe so you can learn to tweak! 

Let's take a look at Thursday's body butter.

BODY BUTTER WITH LOTIONPRO 165
HEATED WATER PHASE
38% distilled water
10% chamomile hydrosol
5% water soluble calendula extract
2% glycerin
2% multigrain complex (hydrolysed protein)
2% sodium lactate
0.5% allantoin

HEATED OIL PHASE
13% shea butter
8% pumpkin seed oil
5% Lotionpro 165
3% cetyl alcohol
2% IPM

COOL DOWN PHASE
2% cyclomethicone
2% dimethicone
2% panthenol
2% quaternized rice (cationic polymer)
1% fragrance or essential oil
0.5% liquid Germall Plus (or preservative of choice at suggested usage rates)

We can strip this recipe down to its base components and come up with a basic body butter recipe with Lotionpro 165 like this one...


STRIPPED DOWN BODY BUTTER WITH LOTIONPRO 165
HEATED WATER PHASE
64.5% distilled water

HEATED OIL PHASE
15% butter
12% oils
5% Lotionpro 165
3% cetyl alcohol

COOL DOWN PHASE
0.5% preservative


Start by asking yourself about the product. What is it? What does it do? What is essential in it? This is a body butter.

Is it really a body butter? Well, there's the problem. There isn't a definition for what "body butter" means. It can mean a thick cream, a really thick cream, a lotion with some stuff in it, and an anhydrous or non-water containing product. We see this product has a heated water phase and a heated oil phase, so we know it's an emulsified body butter, like a lotion. What makes it a body butter? Generally, this means that it is a thicker, richer feeling cream, not a thin or milky lotion. So this should be an emulsified oil-in-water product that contains some things to make it thicker and richer.

What's essential in this product? It's an oil-in-water body butter, so it needs to have some oil, some water, an emulsifier, and a preservative. Those are the basics for a lotion. For a body butter, we want something that will make it thicker, which means we want either a butter or a thickener, like a fatty alcohol or fatty acid. We see shea butter in the product, which is probably the thing that makes it thicker and richer feeling. We also see cetyl alcohol, a fatty alcohol we can add to our lotions to make them feel thicker. Plus, it's a nice emollient.

Please stop for a second and click on this link for the emollients' section of the blog. I would normally manually link each and every emollient about which I write in the post, but honestly, it's a lot of work. So I'm going to ask you to open the emollients' section in a new tab and refer to that. Thanks! This means I've saved enough time to write another post today! Plus, it means you can look at the oils you have at home instead of following the links to the ones I think are important. 

Emollients! They're important in our lotions because they're the thing that makes it feel creamy or rich or oily or dry or everything else. What emollients do we have in this product? We have pumpkin seed oil, a light feeling oil with a greasy feeling; shea butter, a greasy feeling butter that thickens the product at the level at which it's being used as well as offering some serious emolliency; cetyl alcohol, a thickener that offers slip and glide; IPM, an ester that offers a dry feeling emolliency that also reduces the feeling of greasiness of other ingredients; cyclomethicone, a silicone that offers slip and glide with some powdery after feel; and dimethicone, a silicone that offers moisturizing as well as approved barrier protection.

We have six different emollients here. Do we need all six? Well, yes, I would argue that each brings something different to the party, but you can make all kinds of variations. I wouldn't suggest removing the cetyl alcohol because it thickens the product and makes it more of a body butter than a cream, and I wouldn't suggest removing the shea butter because that's what makes it a body butter...but you can exchange them for other fatty alcohols and butters. (More shortly...)

You can substitute all the oils, esters, and silicones for one or more oils, esters, and silicones you like. You could use just pumpkin seed oil for all of it, or all dimethicone, or all IPM, and so on. You'll get a different skin feel if you use all hazelnut oil - light and dry feeling - or all fractionated coconut oil - very light and slightly drier than pumpkin seed oil - or all olive oil - much heavier and greasier feeling, and there might be a slightly green tinge to the product, depending upon how virgin the olive oil might be.

Let's pause for a second and think about this. When you see that amazing recipe that contains oils you don't have, you can substitute them for what you have. You will change the skin feel and maybe the colour and viscosity, but you can still make that product without messing with the emulsification.

Okay, let's think about the butter for a second. Using mango butter may result in a drier and slightly stiffer feeling butter. Using cocoa butter may result in a stiffer and slightly drier feeling product. Using babassu oil may result in a lighter, less greasy feeling product. Using kokum butter may result in a stiffer and slightly drier feeling product with a beige tinges. As with the oils, you can substitute the butter you have for the one I suggest without messing with the chemistry of the lotion. Again, you may change the skin feel, colour, and viscosity, but the lotion will still work.

What about these different fatty alcohols? We use cetyl alcohol, cetearyl alcohol, and/or behenyl alcohol to create a nicely thickened product with some slip and glide, and that's why cetyl alcohol is found in this recipe.

As a side note, Lotionpro 165 is often used with cetyl, cetearyl, or stearyl alcohol to enhance stability, so it's something you don't want to take out entirely.

Finally, what about the emulsifier? It's a harder thing to substitute one emulsifier for another, but it can be done. First, ask yourself about the limitations of using a certain emulsifier. For instance, we know that Sucragel AOF doesn't play nice with esters, so make sure you're using vegetable or seed oils with it. We know that some emulsifiers don't play nice with silicones, so make sure you aren't using a silicone hating emulsifier if you're planning to substitute all of the pumpkin seed oil with cyclomethicone.

We also know there are some usage rules with different emulsifiers. If you had Polawax, remember that you want to use 25% of the oil phase. If you have a 30% oil phase, it means you want to use 7.5% Polawax in this recipe and 8.5% e-wax NF, which we generally use at 1% more than Polawax. (Remove the 2.5% or 3.5% difference from the water amount, leaving you with 62% or 61% distilled water.) This is going to create a very thick product compared to the Lotionpro 165 version, so keep that in mind. If you have Incroquat BTMS-50, 7.5% is going to be a lot of that ingredient, so keep it around 5%

So what do we know? We know we can use pretty much any oil soluble ingredient we want in a recipe. (Yeah, that's oversimplified, but we really can do a ton of tweaking!) You can make this recipe exactly the way I created it on Thursday or you could use your favourite butter and oil. There are so many possibilities, I could write an entire year's worth of posts just changing one little thing or another about this recipe! (I'm really not joking...)

If learning how to tweak recipes in a serious way sounds interesting, I suggest clicking this link to the introduction of the learning to formulate series and learning more! Just click "newer post" when you get to the end of each post to see the entire series! 

Join me tomorrow for something completely different!

Sunday, January 19, 2014

Weekend Wonderings: How can we make a nice body oil from an oil cleansing method oil? Can we replace all the water in the heated water phase? And how do we add humectants to an anhydrous product?

HOW CAN WE MAKE A NICE BODY OIL FROM AN OIL CLEANSING METHOD OIL?
In this post on the oil cleansing method, Carol asks: Your comment "Although I imagine it might make a nice body oil!" has encouraged me to ask this question...to make a body oil would you change the percentages or oils used in anyway? Following your suggestion for normal/dry skin - I used 25% castor oil, 65% sunflower oil & 10% evening primrose oil - it works great on my face for the OCM. I tried it as a body oil & it doesn't spread on the skin, it would take a ton of it to coat the whole body. I found a body oil product I LOVE & I'm interested to reverse engineer it - any guesses on percentages here or suggestions? Ingredient List - Sweet Almond Oil, Shea Butter & Meadowfoam seed oil extract, sunflower oil, avocado, fractionated coconut & hemp oils, lavendar EO, vit E, rosemary extract. (This is directly from the company site, so not sure if it is suppose to be avocado oil & it is a misprint? Thank you!

One of the reasons I suggest learning the skin feel of your oils is so you can figure out what's important in an anhydrous or non-water containing product. For instance, you note that you love your oil blend for oil cleansing but can't spread it well on your skin, and if we know the skin feel of our oils, we can figure out what is causing that and what we could use instead. (I'm sure you've figured out it's the castor oil as it's a sticky, medium to heavy weight oil...)

Looking at this list, we can break down how each ingredient would feel on the skin and what each brings to the party. It's hard to know how much of each oil to use just from thinking about it, but that's part of the fun of workshop time, right?

  • Sweet almond oil - a light feeling, medium greasiness oil that spreads well. 
  • Shea butter - a heavy feeling, heavy greasiness butter that might spread well, but it adds viscosity and thickness to a product. (Perhaps they are talking about fractionated shea oil?)
  • Meadowfoam seed oil - a very light feeling, low greasiness oil that spreads well. 
  • Sunflower oil - a light feeling, heavy greasiness oil that spreads well. 
  • Avocado oil - a medium feeling oil with medium greasiness that spreads relatively well. 
  • Fractionated coconut oil - a very light feeling, low to medium greasiness oil that spreads well. 
  • Hempseed oil - a light feeling, low to medium greasiness oil that spreads well. (The lower the refinement, the thicker oil will feel, so this could be a medium weight oil...)
  • Lavender EO - an essential oil. No effect on skin feel due to low level of usage. 
  • Vitamin E - an anti-oxidant. No effect on skin feel due to low level of usage. 
  • Rosemary extract - an anti-oxidant. No effect on skin feel due to low level of usage. 

So there's the list. Ingredient lists are supposed to start with the ingredient we find the most and go down to the ingredients we find the least. When the list gets down to ingredients that make up 1% or less, then they can be in any order they want. We are going to assume the essential oils and lower make up the 1% category, but there's no reason there needs to be more than 1% of hempseed oil, fractionated coconut oil, avocado oil, or sunflower oil, for instance. It could be 90% sweet almond oil with each ingredient making up 1% or less!


I really hope it's a misprint 'cause other wise this product would be a green sludge plus oils if you used a real avocado. Its shelf life would be a day or so! 


You'll choose the oils in this blend depending upon the skin feel. If the list is the right order, we know there should be more sweet almond oil and less hempseed oil with the others coming in the middle. As I mention repeatedly in the Newbie Tuesday series on skin feel of our oils, try each oil on your skin individually to get to know it better. If this product feels like a light weight product with loads of greasy skin feel, odds are pretty good you're using a lot of sweet almond oil. If this product feeling a medium weight oil with medium greasiness, you're probably using quite a bit of fractionated shea oil and avocado oil. And so on.

I don't duplicate products any more, but I'm not considering this a duplication but more of an example of how we might think about the skin feel of a product and how we might get said skin feel. 

Related posts:
Newbie Tuesday: Making a body oil
Back to basics: Making a body oil spray
Duplicating products: Neutragena's body oil
Esters: A body oil spray
Kukui nut oil: An anhydrous spray

CAN YOU REPLACE ALL THE WATER IN A PRODUCT?
In the post What do you want to know? Is water a filler? Sara asks: Can you replace all of the water in the water phase with a hydrosol? Like rose water? Or is it still important to have distilled water?

You can replace the water phase with any other watery thing like a hydrosol or an extract, but I've found that you end up with something that might be stickier or more fragrant than you expected. The biggest thing I've noticed is that it can change the pH of the product. I had a rosemary hydrosol that had a pH around 4.6. If I used that as 70% of the water phase, it would have offered quite a rosemary smell and would have thrown the pH out of whack. The same amount of distilled water would have a pH of 7 and would have offered no smell.

So the short answer is that you can subsitute all the water in something with a hydrosol or extract or other infusion, but there are good reasons not to...

HOW TO ADD HUMECTANTS TO AN ANHYDROUS PRODUCT?
In the same post, Bunny asks: Is there any way you can include a more traditional humectant in an anhydrous product? Or if I have a water-soluble extract that I want to add to a body butter... so in both cases, adding a very small amount of a water-based product into a mostly anhydrous product? Would there be any way to emulsify this, maybe?

You can see in this post on using sodium lactate in a lip balm, I managed to get a water soluble thing into an anhydrous or non-water containing product using lecithin, which isn't an emulsifier but an ingredient that can help incorporate water soluble ingredients.

I need to clarify something about lecithin. It can be what is called an HLB emulsifier with an HLB value of 4 or 7 or 10. We would combine it with another emulsifier to create what is called a complete emulsifier, something we could use to emulsify oil and water together to create a lotion. Without that other HLB emulsifier, it isn't a complete emulsifier and couldn't be the sole emulsifier in a lotion that you expect to work. It can take on water, but it isn't emulsifying it. If you're interested in learning more, check out this post I wrote on solubilizers

There are oil soluble ingredients that can either take on water or can help other ingredients take on water. For instance, lanolin can take on almost its own weight in water, so you could use this to take on a bit of glycerin or water soluble green tea extract or whatever you want.

Solubilizers like PEG-40 hydrogenated castor oil are generally used to allow you to add something oil based into a water based product, not the other way around, so really the only way to add something water based into an oil based product at home is to use an emulsifier. You might notice that I'm able to add water soluble ingredients like hydrolyzed proteins or panthenol into my conditioner bars, which are by definition anhydrous or non-water containing, or to a solid scrub bar filled with lovely oils and butters. That's thanks to the emulsifying power of Incroquat BTMS-50 or one of the other cationic quaternary compounds that are emulsifiers. You could add just a little emulsifier to your anhydrous product to help add a little water soluble ingredient, but remember that this could change the skin feel to be a little more waxy or a little more dry feeling.

Join me next weekend for more Weekend Wonderings and tomorrow for more fun with simplifying recipes!

If you'd like to see your question answered as a Weekend Wondering, just write a comment somewhere on the blog. I see all comments as they come in, and I'll do my best to answer it in the post on which you've written it or as a Weekend Wondering. Please try to keep your comments confined to posts that are relevant as you help others who might be interested in the topic as well and it means that other readers might have something wonderful to share with you and others if they stumble upon it. 

There's no rhyme or reason why something becomes a Weekend Wondering, but it generally has to do with the length of time it'll take me to answer it. Something simple gets answered as a comment; something that takes me loads of research or searching time will generally make it to the Weekend Wondering post. 

Saturday, January 18, 2014

Weekend Wonderings: The search is working again! How much does the shelf life increase when we add anti-oxidants? Will Leucidal work with sugar scrubs?

THE SEARCH ENGINE
In this post on Emulsifiers: Making a simpler Lotionpro 165 body butter Lise asks: Search function is working on my blog again- I just dropped in to search for something on yours and can't find it. Did you take it down?

I did take the search down because I was growing tired of hearing how it didn't work and because the other search engine was working well. I have put it back, so you, my wonderful readers, have two choices for searching. There's a box at the upper left and a box on the right in the sidebar. Both work well. If one stops working, please use the other. I hope this is the last of the search engine troubles!

HOW MUCH DOES THE SHELF LIFE INCREASE WHEN WE ADD ANTI-OXIDANTS?
In this post, Back to Basics: Whipped butters, erinwray2 asks: So if my oils last up to 1 year and we add Vitamin E as an anti oxidant, how much longer could it last before going rancid, would you say?

The quick answer is that we can't really measure how much longer the oils will last, but we know the shelf life is longer. There are just too many variables to take into account to be able to get an exact date - where are you storing the product? in what kind of container? in what kind of product? and so on - but we know it will push our sell-by dates back a bit.

Related posts:
How do anti-oxidants extend the life of our oils? 
A more in depth look at anti-oxidants

WILL LEUCIDAL PRESERVATIVE WORK WITH ANHYDROUS PRODUCTS?
In this post on Leucidal preservative, Pam asks: Question, I'm starting to make homemade sugar scrubs and read that Leucidal® Liquid was a good preservative to add. How much of Leucidal® Liquid should I use in each jar of sugar scrub?? I'm new to all if this and want to ensure that no one will become ill from any bacteria growth in my products. Please help!!

How do we know if a preservative will work with our product? We need to check the write up or data sheet on the product. What do we know about Leucidal? We know Liquid Leucidal is a water soluble broad spectrum preservative best used at under 70˚C (cool down phase) at 2% to 4%. It may not be compatible with some cationic ingredients, so be careful using this in hair care products (conditioners, leave-in conditioners, shampoos with cationic polymers), body care products in which you might be using cationic polymers, or lotions in which you might use BTMS.

If something is water soluble, it means it dissolves in water. If you're making a sugar scrub or other product that doesn't contain water - we call these anhydrous products or products without water- we don't have anything to dissolve the preservative in, so it won't be effective. We'll have to choose an oil soluble preservative, like Phenonip

So the short answer is that Leucidal isn't suitable for oil soluble sugar scrubs because it is a water soluble ingredient. 

What can you use instead? You need to check the preservative chart or preservative section of the blog to figure out what is oil soluble. In general, we tend to use parabens as they are oil soluble ingredients. There is some debate about whether or not we can use Optiphen in oil soluble products, and I learn towards being able to use it based on reading the various data sheets. (These are not paraben based.) 

Related posts:

As part of our year of being curious, I really encourage you, my lovely readers, to check out the frequently asked questions (FAQ) section if you have a question as I'm constantly updating it with questions I'm asked frequently. If you're a newbie, I encourage you to check out the newbies' section of the blog as I'm also working on that section as questions arise. 

Friday, January 17, 2014

Emulsifiers: Making a slightly simpler Lotionpro 165 body butter


We took a look at a body butter yesterday that contained quite a few ingredients. If I surveyed every recipe on this site - which would number over a thousand! - there would probably be a question on each of them from you, my wonderful readers, on how to make them simpler, how to leave an ingredient out, or how to change it in some way.

If you really want to learn how to do some serious tweaking, please click here for the start of the learning to formulate series where you can spend some time learning how to alter the different phases of our lotion products over and over again! We'll be taking a look at this recipe over the next few days to see how we could alter it...

BODY BUTTER WITH LOTIONPRO 165
HEATED WATER PHASE
38% distilled water
10% chamomile hydrosol
5% water soluble calendula extract
2% glycerin
2% multigrain complex (hydrolysed protein)
2% sodium lactate
0.5% allantoin

HEATED OIL PHASE
13% shea butter
8% pumpkin seed oil
5% Lotionpro 165
3% cetyl alcohol
2% IPM

COOL DOWN PHASE
2% cyclomethicone
2% dimethicone
2% panthenol
2% quaternized rice (cationic polymer)
1% fragrance or essential oil
0.5% liquid Germall Plus (or preservative of choice at suggested usage rates)

What do we really need in this body butter? We need four things - water, oil, emulsifier, and preservative - and everything else is superfluous. So why include the other ingredients? Because they offer all kinds of wonderful benefits like a nicer skin feel, fatty acids that can help moisturize, humectants that hydrate, silicones that increase slip and glide, occlusives that protect our skin from the outside world, and so on. 

So what would it look like if we stripped this recipe down? I'm going to include the fatty alcohol, cetyl alcohol, because it offers stability to the product and creates a really lovely skin feel. I'm including the same amount of oils and butter in the original recipe with the same amount of emulsifier. 

STRIPPED DOWN BODY BUTTER WITH LOTIONPRO 165
HEATED WATER PHASE
64.5% distilled water

HEATED OIL PHASE
15% butter
12% oils
5% emulsifier
3% cetyl alcohol

COOL DOWN PHASE
0.5% preservative 

Pretty basic, but still lovely. You could alter this until the proverbial cows come home with different oils, butters, and fatty alcohols without ever changing anything in the heated water phase. 

So let's say you don't want to use IPM or cyclomethicone...how can you alter this product? Strip it down to the basics and start adding from there. In the oils amount of 12%, just don't add IPM or the silicones to the product. Let's say you want to use loads of rice bran oil and cocoa butter, just add rice bran oil as the 12% oil phase and use cocoa butter as your butter. 

Keep in mind that, for the most part, we can substitute any oil for any other oil in a recipe. If you see a suppliers' recipe with evening primrose, you could use any other oil in its place. You might change the viscosity and you might change the skin feel, but you'll still get a well emulsified lotion. 

Join me Monday for some more tweaking of this recipe! 

Related posts:

Thursday, January 16, 2014

Emulsifiers: Lotionpro 165 in a body butter

One of the things Jen from Lotioncrafter advertises on her blog about this emulsifier is its ability to create a light, fluffy body butter (Body Butter Bliss recipe), so it was only natural to try using it in a body butter that contained quite a lot of shea butter to see how it would work.

I started with my basic body butter recipe, then I tweaked it to contain some ingredients I had in my workshop that would be suitable for a mid-winter body butter intended to offer some serious moisturizing and hydrating.

BODY BUTTER WITH LOTIONPRO 165
HEATED WATER PHASE
38% distilled water
10% chamomile hydrosol
5% water soluble calendula extract
2% glycerin
2% multigrain complex (hydrolysed protein)
2% sodium lactate
0.5% allantoin

HEATED OIL PHASE
13% shea butter
8% pumpkin seed oil
5% Lotionpro 165
3% cetyl alcohol
2% IPM

COOL DOWN PHASE
2% cyclomethicone
2% dimethicone
2% panthenol
2% quaternized rice (cationic polymer)
1% fragrance or essential oil
0.5% liquid Germall Plus (or preservative of choice at suggested usage rates)

Use the general lotion making instructions to create this product.

Why did I use these ingredients? Remember that I'm a big fan of the idea of choosing your ingredients with your goals in mind. So what's the goal of a mid-winter body butter? We want something that feels thicker and richer than a normal lotion, so we'll use a butter, like shea or mango, as the main oil in the product to provide that thick, rich feeling. I like my products to feel a bit greasier, so I'll make a shea butter body butter. You can choose mango butter for a drier feeling product. I want something that will hydrate my skin, so I want to include loads of humectants, and I want something to condition and moisturize. I would like something that would help if I get some chapping from the wind or the cold as well.

I'm a big fan of occlusives, so I thought I'd use allantoin in the heated water phase and dimethicone in the cool down phase to provide that barrier from the outside world because we all know winter isn't the best friend of our skin! I love humectants, those wonderful ingredients that draw water from the atmosphere to our skin, and I thought a combination of sodium lactate - one that we shouldn't use at over 2.5% as it can make us sun sensitive, and we still get sun around here in the winter - and glycerin would offer all those wonderful qualities we want in a humectant without being sticky.

I really like calendula extract as it offers anti-inflammatory properties, soothes inflamed and chapped skin. You could increase one of the hydrosols or extracts that offer similar properties. Make sure the liquid calendula extract you get is water soluble. If you want to use oil soluble calendula, you can substitute it for some of the pumpkin seed oil or shea butter.

You can use any hydrolyzed proteins you want to act as film formers and moisturizers. I chose the multigrain complex from Formulator Sample Shop (outside link) with quinoa, rice, and amaranth proteins as it is advertised as gluten free, and one of my testers has celiac disease and I'm not sure she would be sensitive to wheat or oat protein in a topical product. You can use any of the other hydrolyzed proteins in its place.

In the oil phase, I'm using pumpkin seed oil because it's my new Saturday night thing - you can tell I'm in love with this oil, eh? - as I find that it offers a good balance of fatty acids, Vitamin E, phytosterols, and polyphenols. If you don't have any, try substituting sesame seed oil or rice bran oil as they are very similar in chemical composition and skin feel. Or choose any other oil you want. Remember, when you change the oil, you change the skin feel. If you want something that feels lighter, consider fractionated coconut oil. If you want something heavier, choose something like avocado or olive oil.

If you're interested in learning more about oils, may I suggest either reading the Newbie Tuesday series on the skin feel of our oils or the formulating lotions posts on substituting them in our products?

As I mentioned earlier, I like shea butter because it offers a rich and greasy feeling to the product. If you want something drier, try using mango butter or something like babassu oil instead. You could use coconut oil, but it won't be as thick as something with a proper butter. I've never tried this recipe with cocoa butter, but I guess you could use that, too.

I'm including cetyl alcohol in this product as a way of thickening up the body butter and as a stabilizer for the Lotionpro 165. (I've been reading about how fatty alcohols stabilize our lotions lately and it's really interesting! Look for it shortly when I start writing more about liquid crystal emulsifiers!) You could substitute behenyl alcohol for a drier and powderier feeling body butter or cetearyl alcohol for a waxier feeling product. You could use stearic acid for a much thicker feeling product.

I like to include 2% IPM in most of my greasier feeling lotions as it will make it feel less greasy. I know this sounds weird, especially as someone who extolls the virtues of greasier feeling lotion when I can, but there's something that 2% IPM brings to a lotion that makes it feel less greasy in a good way. I don't like the powdery feeling that an emulsifier like BTMS-50 can bring to a product when it reduces greasines, and IPM doesn't offer that.

In the cool down phase, you know I had to include panthenol as a humectant and as an ingredient to help with wound healing and skin's barrier repair mechanisms. I've included cyclomethicone as an ingredient to increase the slip and glide of the product while offering some reduction in greasiness and a feeling of powderiness, but not too much powderiness. And I've included a cationic polymer to offer conditioning to the product. My skin could always use more conditioning! If you don't have this ingredient, leave it out and increase the water phase by 2%.

What do I think of this product? Look how fluffy it is! It feels really fluffy when you take it out of the container, and it feels really fluffy when you put it on your skin. I can't believe that something with 13% shea butter is this fluffy! It takes a few days to come to the final viscosity, but it was like this not 24 hours after making it and it remained that way. It feels less greasy than the versions I've made with Polawax and less stiff. It doesn't feel as heavy on my skin as the other versions were either, but the slightly greasy layer is still on my skin a few hours later. In short, this is a really fluffy body butter that offers moisturizing and hydrating without a waxy layer I've come to associate with body butters. It's really changed the way I see body butters! (I know, right?)

I'm really shocked at how fluffy this product is, to be honest. If you want something that feels more like your traditional greasy and heavier body butter, you'll probably want to use 20% shea butter instead of the oil and butter combination. But even then, it'll probably be fluffy. (Talk about a first world problem, eh? My body butter is too fluffy and light! Sigh...)

Can you make this body butter with another emulsifier? Of course you can! Just remember the rules about the emulsifier you choose. If you want to use Polawax, remember that we use it at 25% of the oil phase, which is 30%. If you want to use BTMS-50, you could probably just substitute that emulsifier directly 1:1 with the Lotionpro. If you want to use Ritamulse SCG, remember that it can't handle more than 25% oils, so you'll want to drop the oil phase by 5% - I suggest removing some of the liquid oils instead of the shea butter because isn't the butter the point of the recipe? - and using 8% emulsifier. Or just click here and choose one of the variations you find!

Could you make this simpler?  Sure! Join me tomorrow for a slightly simpler version of this extremely fluffy body butter!

Please note: I am not affiliated with any company selling bath and body supplies or products. I bought the Lotionpro 165 from Lotioncrafter with my wages. I received ingredients from the Formulator Sample Shop for free. When I write about those ingredients, I am sharing my honest opinion with you! 

Wednesday, January 15, 2014

Emulsifiers: Lotionpro 165 in a lotion

We met Lotionpro 165 in yesterday's post, so it only seems fitting to try it in a lotion recipe today! When I find a new emulsifier, I like to try it out in a product I've made many times before so I can compare it directly with my regular emulsifiers like Polawax or Ritamulse SCG. I thought I'd make this pumpkin seed lotion I made a few months ago for my husband. (If you want to know why I'm using each ingredient, please click on the lotion link!) I've tried to keep this recipe the same as the other one, but I was out of aloe vera and hydrosols, so I didn't include them in this recipe. I shall do that next time!

LOTIONPRO 165 TESTER LOTION WITH PUMPKIN SEED OIL
HEATED WATER PHASE
63% distilled water
3% glycerin
2% silk amino acids
0.5% allantoin

HEATED OIL PHASE
21% oils - 15% pumpkin seed and 6% evening primrose oil
4% Lotionpro 165
2% cetyl alcohol
2% IPM

COOL DOWN PHASE
2% panthenol
0.5% Vitamin E
0.5% liquid Germall Plus
1% fragrance or essential oil (optional)

Please use the basic lotion making instructions for this product! Remember that the melting point of this product is 54˚C to 60˚C, so you need to heat and hold above those temperatures, ideally around 70˚C. (You should always heat and hold, anyway!) I decided to use a stick blender with this product instead of my usual hand mixer - I thought I had read that you had to stick blend this one - and it worked very well. You could also use a hand mixer with the beater attachment. Don't try to whisk this by hand as it needs something stronger to whip it well.

As a lotion, it's great. It's quite fluffy and light and goes on my skin quite easily with a decent amount of play time. It felt like it sunk in well, but still left a nice layer of oily waxiness left on my skin to feel like I had applied lotion. It didn't feel too greasy or too non-greasy or powdery on my skin. My skin wasn't shiny, though, which is something my mom enjoys seeing on her skin.

If I compare this to the version with Polawax, it's definitely lighter and definitely fluffier. The Polawax version left behind a waxier layer on my skin and a greasier feeling on my hands.

If I compare this to a lotion made with Ritamulse SCG, it's definitely lighter and definitely fluffier. The Ritamulse versions of this lotion I've made are a little drier feeling and definitely leave behind a waxy coating on your skin.

Would I use this emulsifier again? Heck yeah! It was easy to understand how to use it, it was easy to use in a recipe, and it feels fantastic! I really like this emulsifier and will add it to my regular rotation along with Polawax and Ritamulse SCG. The fluffiness is really unique amongst the emulsifiers, and it works well in other products, too.

Join me tomorrow to learn more about another interesting emulsifier, Sugarmulse.

Tuesday, January 14, 2014

Why the heck did I buy this and what can I do with it? Lotionpro 165

I bought Lotionpro 165 (INCI Glyceryl Stearate (and) PEG 100 Stearate) from Lotioncrafter a while ago, but I'm finally getting around to playing with it, and it seemed like a great inclusion in the Why the heck did I buy this? series of posts!

Lotionpro 165 is an all-in-one non-ionic emulsifier based on the HLB system used in our heated oil phase to emulsify water and oil together to creation lotions and other emulsified products. It has an HLB value of about 11.2. (You don't need to know this in order to use it, but it's helpful information.)

It's known as an emulsifier that can emulsify large amounts of oil even when using small amounts. The usage is 1% to 5%, with 2.5% to 5% suggested for 20% to 30%. It offers great stability with AHAs and BHAs (acids), so it would be a good choice for moisturizers. It comes in small white flakes, and we add it to the heated oil phase of your product. Its melting point is at 54˚C to 60 ˚C (129˚F to 140˚F), so make sure you heat and hold your oil phase at over that amount to ensure that it is completely melted when you combine the heated oil and heated water phase.

In my experience, this emulsifier tends to make lighter and fluffier lotions than those made with Polawax, even when used at the same amount. (Your experience may vary!) I have found it feels less waxy than products I've made with Polawax or Ritamulse SCG. It's not a greasy feeling emulsifier, but it definitely doesn't feel as dry and powdery as Incroquat BTMS-50.

There isn't a rule about how much Lotionpro 165 to add to your products. I suggest starting at around 4% and going up to 5% if you feel you aren't getting the stability you want or reducing it to 3% if you feel you are using too much. You will have to play around to find the perfect balance for your products.

Jen at Lotioncrafter has created a lovely body butter using this ingredient. I can't recommend this recipe enough! 

Lotionpro 165 goes under a series of different names, but I suggest knowing the INCI when going to look for it at your supplier.

Join me tomorrow as we take a look at a lotion recipe with this new emulsifier!

Monday, January 13, 2014

What do you want to know? Is water important or just a filler?

In the What do you want to know? post, Nicole asks: When I first started making anhydrous products, my opinion was that they were the best possible thing for my dry chapped winter hands and dry feet, and that lotions would be better for me for summer. My logic was that if some oil is good then more oil is better, and I viewed water as a filler or a means of diluting the oil if you don’t need that much of it. After reading a lot if your website, I'm starting to wonder if there isn't more to it than that. I know that commercial companies want to save money so they reduce the oil and add thickeners back in, but does water have a special role that I’m overlooking? 

The inspiration for this question is that I was pondering humectants. I understand that humectants draw water from the air into your skin. So do they work better if there is water in the product to draw into your skin right away? Does a humectant in a lotion work better than in an anhydrous product (I’m thinking olive oil here, with natural humectant properties) What is the full role of water in a lotion? 

Let's take a moment to learn a little about our skin. (From this post - the chemistry of our skin (updated) I really recommend reading it as this is a quick summary.) The top layer of our skin is called the stratum corneum, and it's a dead layer of cells called corneocytes that contain something called the natural moisturizing factor, (NMF) a bunch of awesome water soluble chemicals that help prevent transepidermal water loss (TEWL) or water loss from our skin. The natural moisturizing factor needs to be kept moist to keep our skin feeling elastic and to reduce skin scaling, cracking, or flaking. 

We can reduce scaling, cracking, and flaking of our skin and reduce transepidermal water loss by using products we make. Anhydrous or non-water containing products are great for trapping in the moisture you have on your skin, but if you don't have much, you can't trap in much. This is one of the reasons we use products like lotions that contain water - they can bring water to our skin and the oils can trap it against our skin, so we remain moisturized. Anhydrous products might be great for trapping in the water we have, but water-in-oil products are great for bringing water to our skin and replenishing the supply in the NMF. 

So water isn't just a filler, it's a necessity to help our skin remain elastic and reduce transepidermal water loss. If we don't have enough in our skin, using a product that contains water introduce it to our skin to help replenish it. 

Where do humectants fit into this whole picture? Humectants are ingredients that draw water from the atmosphere to the surface of our skin. If you can draw water to the skin then trap it, you can increase moisturization. Ideally we would have an occlusive ingredient on our skin to trap in the water that it lures, and studies have shown that humectants need occlusive ingredients in low humidity environments to work effectively. (Click here for that post...

The only humectant we can use in an anhydrous product would be olive oil, and it's not nearly as good as something you'd find in something like a lotion, something like glycerin or sodium lactate or honeyquat. It's not because it's in an anhydrous product, but because olive oil just isn't as effective as these other humectants. 

So the short answer is that water in our products isn't a filler; it's there to help our skin remain or become more elastic and reduce cracking, flaking, and scaling and other signs of dry skin. And we can add humectants to our products to 

Related posts:

Sunday, January 12, 2014

Weekend Wonderings: Using xanthan gum in surfactant based products? What ingredients make our hair shinier?

WHAT'S THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN USING CROTHIX AND XANTHAN GUM?
Angela sent me an e-mail to ask: When making a body wash, shampoo, etc.  What is the difference between using Crothix and Xanthan Gum?

The main difference will be the skin feel of the different ingredients. Both Crothix and xanthan gum will thicken your products, but they may look different and will feel different on your skin. 

If you're making a surfactant based products, you need to make sure you know the charge of the surfactants. It works well with low levels of anionic (negatively charged) or amphoteric (could be positive, could be negative, most likely to be positive at acidic pH levels) surfactants as a thickener and with higher levels of non-ionic (neutrally charged) surfactants, like decyl glucoside. It doesn't play well with cationic (positively charged) ingredients, like cationic polymers, so leave those out or get another thickener sorted. (This is one of the other reasons I don't use xanthan gum because I really like cationic polymers in my shampoo, body wash, and other surfactant based products.) 

My own experience - and this is only my experience! - is that I find xanthan gum (and most gums) stickier feeling and less thickening than using Crothix or Ritathix DOE. I find the gums can be slightly stringier in viscosity, too. 

This is just my opinion! I admit that I'm not a fan of gums in my products as I find they feel sticky. I prefer using Crothix or Ritathix when I'm making products. If you've used both ingredients, what do you think? Share your thoughts! 

Related posts:
Anionic, cationic, non-ionic

WHAT CAN WE ADD TO OUR PRODUCTS TO MAKE OUR HAIR SHINIER?
In the What do you want to know? post, Kateri asks: Here's my wondering. Say I'm looking to formulate a hair product for high shine, as an example a conditioner. Out of all our wonderful ingredients we can add, that add shine, is there one key ingredient that brings to the table the best result to leaving hair shiny? 

Something emollient, like an oil or silicone, is the type of thing you want to add to a conditioner to make your hair shinier. It seems like a leave on product, like an anti-frizz spray, leave in conditioner, or shine spray, would offer more shine than a rinse off product, like a conditioner.


From this post on Crodomol STS (Superior to Silcone): An aside on the refractive index...All materials reflect and refract light, which is to say all materials alter the angle of light. The refractive index is a ratio defined as the speed of light in a vacuum (which equals 1) over the speed of light in the material. Light slows down when it enters a substance, so every refractive index will be over 1. The higher the refractive index, the higher the light intensity reflected from the surface. Titanium dioxide has a refractive index of 2.7, one of the highest of all materials, and diamonds are about 2.419 - and we know how sparkly they can be! - whereas water is around 1.33. Crodomol STS has a refractive index of 1.4696, cyclomethicone at 1.394 to 1.398, and dimethicone 1.375 to 1.403.

I found this really interesting page online about the refractive index of vegetable oils, if you're interested in learning more. It seems like the average for vegetable oils - not listed which ones - is about 1.47, so it sounds like any of the oils would be a good choice. The reason we might not use oils has to do with two factors - they can make our hair much oilier than a comparable ester or silicone, and they can go rancid over the course of a day or two.

Lest you doubt this, put enough grapeseed oil on your hair to make it shiny. Now see how it smells by the end of the day. My massage therapist uses grapeseed oil, and by the end of that day I can see it's going slightly off. I'm not saying this will happen to every oil everyone uses, but starting with something that doesn't have an odour - like dimethicone or an ester - means you don't have to deal with the smell. Or choose an oil that won't go off quickly, like coconut oil

Here's the thing...Your hair can only be so shiny with your ingredients. As someone with coarse hair with some waves, I don't tend to see a lot of shine on my hair except on the straight parts near my scalp. I can add tons of silicones and I won't see substantially more shine because the kinks and waves in my hair alter the angle of the light. If you have straight hair, you'll get more shine with those ingredients than someone with non-straight hair.

Which ones to choose?  I think it's hard to say that one ingredient is the end all and be all for shiny hair, but if I had to choose, I'd go with dimethicone every time...but you can see there are loads of choices you can make!

Saturday, January 11, 2014

Weekend Wonderings: Why do I suggest testing your products? What's the difference between a conditioner and a moisturizier?

Well, the good news is that the search bar in the upper left hand corner is working quite well. I liked the way the other one gave me a list of the posts that I could choose from instead of the actual posts, but otherwise, no complaints. The bad news is that I'm not getting e-mail alerts about your comments, so I have to go through the list of comments to see them all, which gets a bit much as I also have to delete all the spam, which takes me to the top of the list! Argh! So please don't be upset or offended if I missed your comment this weekend! I just have to get into the swing of doing this!

WHY DO I SUGGEST TESTING YOUR PRODUCTS BASED ON MY RECIPES?
In the What do you want to know? post, d anaya asks: If we follow your recipes as they are only changing the butters and/or oils but keeping the quantities as is wouldn't they be considered safe for public use? Given your experience and expertise I'm curious why you still recommend we have them tested.

My recipes are safe for your usage. I make them in the workshop and ask my wonderful guinea pigs...I mean, friends and family, of course...to test them. I test the pH and I ensure I'm using ingredients at safe levels. I have no doubt that my recipes are safe for you to use, but I cannot be sure that you are making them in a way that will ensure they remain uncontaminated. And that's why I suggest you get your products tested.

The reality is that you aren't going to make the product the way I do at home. You might not use the same oils, same butters, distilled water, and so on. You aren't going to clean your containers or heat and hold the way I do, so I have to remind you that your methods may be different and you will have to see how your products stand up over time. The microbes in your neighbourhood might be different than mine, and who knows what yeasts and fungi circulate in your environment compared to mine. Your climate might be different, with more or less humidity than the Fraser Valley (although, at times, I find it hard to believe anything could be more humid!). Even something like using a stick blender instead of a mixer (or vice versa) will change the lotion at times. I ask you to get it tested before you start selling because it's a smart thing to do because it's the only way to know that everything is going well with your lotion!

Testing your products at a lab or with a home testing kit tells you all about the potential contamination in the product, which is something I can't guarantee against in my products. If you're thinking about selling your products, you must get them tested to know that your products are safe for people to use!

You can get a kit like this at Formulator Sample Shop or Lotioncrafter, as two examples. I haven't found anywhere in Canada to get them yet. Please feel free to list a supplier you've found carrying these kits in the comments! 

When it comes to things like pH, I test my finished products for my pH levels, but changing even one ingredient can make a difference in your product at home. For instance, I use distilled water with a pH of 7, but you might use tap water or another water with a different pH. You might use aloe vera or a hydrosol that can bring down your pH. Or you might add something alkaline and raise the pH. Every little change - especially with things like surfactants - can make a difference in the pH. For the most part, the difference will be negligible, but if you're making product for sale, you can't be too careful!

So the short answer is that I don't know what you're doing at home, so I suggest testing for those of you who might be selling your products today or in the future so you know what lurks in your products!

WHAT'S THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A CONDITIONER AND A MOISTURIZER?
In the What do you want to know post, Bonstergirl asks: What exactly is a conditioner, and how is it different from a moisturizer?

I go into great detail about what a conditioner is and how it works in these posts - how conditioners work and chemistry of your hair: adsorption and substantivity (which you can find in the hair care section of the blog) - but the general gist is that a conditioner is a positively charged product that we put on our hair that contains an oil phase and a water phase. It contains what is called a cationic quaternary compound that is the emulsifier of the oil and water phases.

A moisturizer or lotion is a neutrally or positively charged product that we put on our skin that contains an oil phase and a water phase. It contains what is called an emulsifier to emulsify or bring together the water and oil phase.

The short answer is that there isn't necessarily a difference between the two. (I go into great detail about the difference in this post - what's the difference between a conditioner with BTMS and a moisturizer with BTMS?

We use conditioners on our hair and moisturizers on our skin, and they could be the same product. Both contain oil, water, and emulsifiers to bring the oil and water together. Both can contain things like hydrolyzed proteins, extracts and hydrosols, emollients like silicones, and so on. 

I make loads of moisturizers that contain a positively charged emulsifier like Incroquat BTMS-50 or Rita BTMS-225 and they could be used on your hair or on your skin. My winter hair custard from a few days ago could work as a light body butter or an intense emollient hair conditioner. 

As I mentioned above, conditioners must be positively charged whereas a moisturizer could be positively charged or neutrally charged. (There are anionic emulsifiers - for instance, surfactants like sodium lauryl sulfate bring together oil and wate - but we don't use those in leave on products.) 

Related posts:

Join me tomorrow for more Weekend Wonderings! Got a question or a thought? Share it with us! 

Friday, January 10, 2014

Ingredient: Using Captex SBE/ButterEZ as a thickener with oils

One of the ways you can use Captex SBE or ButterEZ (INCI Caprylic/capric/stearic triglycerides) in our products is as a thickener. It can be used in place of a butter in your products or you can combine it with a butter or oil to thicken it or reduce grains. I think the most amazing thing it can do is create a butter from our oils. We've seen this happen with Lipidthix, but there's some potential for grains with that product. (Click here for that post...)

I've found that using about 25% is ideal for making something that feels like a proper butter. I've heated and held it, then cooled it to create a butter that is whippable into this wonderful whipped butter! It feels really nice on your skin, and it will melt on contact with your skin the way something like shea butter or mango butter will melt. You can use this butter anywhere you would use any other butter - in a whipped butter, a lotion bar, a lotion, hair conditioner, and so on.

I'm adding 0.5% Vitamin E to this recipe so any short lived oils will have some protection against quick rancidity. It is optional.

CREATING A BUTTER WITH EZ/CAPTEX SBE
74.5% oil of choice
25% Butter EZ/Captex SBE
0.5% Vitamin E

Heat the oil and ButterEZ/Captex SBE together in a heat proof container. Hold at 70˚C to allow all the fatty acids to completely melt. Remove from the heat, add Vitamin E, and allow to cool.

If you want to turn this into a whipped butter, I suggest putting it in the fridge or freezer to cool quickly, then remove and whip until it's lovely and fluffy. (I get the cute swirl on the top of my whipped butters by using a 1M cake decorating tip with a piping bag.)

Try using this butter you create in your lotion bars as the main butter. It's interesting to see what something like a rice bran oil butter brings to a lotion bar compared to using cocoa, mango, or shea butter.