Saturday, May 5, 2012

Formulating for dry skin: Making a body butter

I know I keep saying the same thing, but when you make a product for dry skin you want to make sure you've chosen appropriate occlusive ingredients - allantoin, dimethicone, or cocoa butter - along with good emollients that contain linoleic acid, gamma-linoleic acid, or conjugated linoleic acid and good humectants. You want these things for normal and oily skin, but they are essential for making anything for dry skin. Otherwise, you aren't helping reduce transepidermal water loss, increase skin's barrier repair, or offering more hydration to the skin.

We'll start with our 60% water body butter basic recipe and modify it a few different ways.


RECIPE FOR A BODY BUTTER
WATER PHASE
59% water
2% sodium lactate or glycerin

OIL PHASE
10% oils (4% light, 4% medium, 2% heavy, or just 10% of the oil of your choice)
15% shea butter (or butter of choice)
7% emulsifier*
3% cetyl alcohol

COOL DOWN PHASE
0.5 to 1% preservative
1% fragrance or essential oil blend

What do we want for dry skin? Occlusives, humectants, and emollients!


Remember, when we add something to our recipe, we need to remove an equal amount from the water phase. If we have a total of 6% humectants in this recipe, we'll have to remove 4% water from the water amount, meaning we'll have 55% water, 2% glycerin, 2% sodium lactate, and 2% panthenol. If this seems a little confusing, please check out this post

Let's take a look at a few variations you could make for this lotion!

BODY BUTTER WITH MINIMALLY PROCESSED INGREDIENTS FOR DRY SKIN WITH LOADS OF OCCLUSIVE INGREDIENTS
HEATED WATER PHASE
36.5% water
10% aloe vera
10% chamomile hydrosol
4% honey
0.5% allantoin

HEATED OIL PHASE
10% any oil of choice - I'd go with something high in linoleic acid
5% cocoa butter
10% shea butter (or other butter of choice)
7% Polawax
3% cetyl alcohol

COOL DOWN PHASE
up to 2% preservative of choice
1% fragrance or essential oil

Use the general lotion making instructions for this recipe.

BODY BUTTER FOR DRY SKIN WITH LOADS OF OCCLUSIVE INGREDIENTS
HEATED WATER PHASE
34.5% water
10% aloe vera
10% hydrosol of choice
2% sodium lactate
2% glycerin
0.5% allantoin

HEATED OIL PHASE
10% oil of choice
5% cocoa butter
8% shea butter (or other butter of choice)
7% Polawax
3% cetyl alcohol

COOL DOWN PHASE
2% dimethicone
2% panthenol
0.5% to 1% preservative
1% fragrance or essential oil


Use the general lotion making instructions for this recipe. 

BODY BUTTER FOR DRY SKIN WITH LOADS OF OCCLUSIVE INGREDIENTS BUT LESS GREASY THAN THE LAST ONE
HEATED WATER PHASE
34.5% water
10% aloe vera
10% chamomile hydrosol
2% sodium lactate
2% glycerin
0.5% allantoin

HEATED OIL PHASE
6% oil of choice
2% IPM
5% cocoa butter
10% mango butter
7% BTMS-50
3% cetyl alcohol

COOL DOWN PHASE
0.5% to 1% preservative
1% fragrance or essential oil
2% panthenol
2% dimethicone 

Note: BTMS-25 is not an option as an emulsifier in this recipe. Use Polawax or another emulsifier at the appropriate levels. 

If you want a less greasy lotion, you'll want to choose rice bran, sesame, or wheat germ oils. For a much less greasy lotion, make sure you are using mango butter and borage, evening primrose, or cranberry oil. 

BODY BUTTER FOR DRY SKIN WITH LOADS OF HUMECTANTS AND LESS GREASY INGREDIENTS
HEATED WATER PHASE
28.5% water 
10% aloe vera
10% chamomile hydrosol
2.5% sodium lactate
3% glycerin
2% hydrolyzed oat protein
2% hydrolyzed silk protein

HEATED OIL PHASE
8% oils
2% IPM
15% mango butter
7% Polawax or BTMS-50
3% cetyl alcohol

COOL DOWN PHASE 
0.5% to 1% preservative
1% fragrance or essential oil
3% honeyquat


You could keep tweaking this recipe for weeks, if you wanted. Add more hydrosols, add some extracts in the cool down phase, and so on. There's no limit to what you could do with this recipe - the key is that you have at least one occlusive, one humectant, and one emollient!

I encourage you to play around with the humectants. One of my favourite hand lotions has a ton of humectants in it - 2.5% sodium lactate, 4% glycerin, 4% honey, and 3% honeyquat - and I use it in the winter when my hands get very dry. That might feel sticky on your skin, but that's why we customize our products!

Join me tomorrow to formulate some scrubs for dry skin!

Related posts:
Formulating for your skin type: Body butters
Formulating for dry skin: What is dry skin?

7 comments:

Sciarretta Farms said...

I've been wondering, is shea butter considered an occlusive? How does it perform compared to cocoa butter?

Susan Barclay-Nichols said...

Shea butter isn't considered an official occlusive by the FDA, but it is a fairly occlusive product, as are the other butters. It's not nearly as occlusive as cocoa butter - remember, cocoa butter has been studied and approved as an occlusive - but it will help prevent TEWL better than an oil.

Sciarretta Farms said...

Thank you! I made a facial moisturizer from your body butter recipe and used shea butter since it doesn't make me break out, unlike cocoa butter. The moisturizer works GREAT! I love using glycerin in our arid climate.

Tonia Waters said...

I add panthenol to my lotions and body butters like you suggest and love it. My question is this I have powdered panthenol do I count this as part of the water ingredients? If I use 60% water do I deduct 2% of the 60% water for the panthenol that I add to it? I was confused since it is a powder and not a liquid.

Susan Barclay-Nichols said...

Hi Tonia. When we add or substract something from the product, we have to increase or decrease the water amount as our recipe should always total 100%. Check out this post for more information.

Genevieve Bellerose said...

Hi Susan

Iv just made your body butter recipe

53.5% water
2% sodium lactate
1% Powdered panthenol
3% Glycerine

5% cocoa butter
10% shea butter
7% e wax
3% cetyl
4% apricot kernel
4& jojoba oil
2% rice bran oil

2% Cyclomethicone
0.5 preservative
1% EO
2% Dimethicone

it has worked out fantastic, im jumping around my kitchen with a great big smile on my face. Thank you so much.

T. Wallace said...

Hi Susan,
I'm a newbie & have tried nearly eleventy-jillion body butter recipes over the last year. Most were too thick & draggy while others were too thin or greasy. After playing around with the 3rd variation on this page (I used rice bran & jojoba oils with mango,cocoa, & Shea butters) I finally have an AWESOME body butter that applies nicely & absorbs quickly! Everyone is getting it for Christmas this year. Thanks so much for sharing your insights!