Monday, April 23, 2012

Formulating for dry skin: Toners continued...

As we saw in this post and this post, the pH of our skin care products is absolutely vital, and more so for facial products. When we're creating a cleanser, toner, or any other non-lotiony product, we have to make sure we are testing our pH and ensuring that it will be in the right range for our skin - about 6 and below, although the addition of things like AHAs, lactic acid, Multifruit BSC, and other acids will bring our pH lower, which we've learned is a good thing.

Click here for part one of the toners post...or for more information on why I'm choosing each ingredient. And click here for more information on how to change the pH of your products. I will go into more detail below, but it seems like people want direct links with direct information in asides rather than being incorporated into a paragraph. 

I don't tend to use a moisturizer as an oily person, and I tend to load my toner up with all kinds of crazy things - the dry skinned person might want to save the expensive stuff for your moisturizer. And you'll want to apply the toner, pat some of it off, then apply your moisturizer to keep all the watery goodness against your skin. If you're using a serum, toners are even more important because you'll want to have some water to trap under the anhydrous product!

Toners don't have to be astringent - they can be, but it's not essential. As someone with dry skin, you might like astringency or you might not. If you do, consider using something like witch hazel at up to 30% in your toner. If not, leave it out!

You can be quite minimalist with your toner - some hydrosols, a humectant, maybe an extract - or really extravagant, or somewhere in between. Let's take a look at how these three toners would differ.

MINIMALIST TONER FOR DRY SKIN
HEATED WATER PHASE
76% water
10% aloe vera
10% hydrosol of choice
0.5% allantoin
2.5% sodium lactate or sodium PCA

COOL DOWN PHASE
0.5% to 1% preservative
0.5% extract of some kind

This is a pretty basic toner with a humectant and allantoin (our occlusive ingredient). It is going to offer some hydration to your skin, but not a lot of long term moisturization.

IN BETWEEN TONER FOR DRY SKIN
HEATED WATER PHASE
48.5% water
10% aloe vera
10% hydrosol of choice
10% another hydrosol of choice
0.5% allantoin
2.5% sodium lactate or sodium PCA (or another humectant of choice)
2% hydrolyzed protein of choice

COOL DOWN PHASE
2% panthenol
0.5% green tea extract
0.5% chamomile extract
3% Honeyquat
0.5% to 1% preservative

We've included some other hydrosols in this mix, added some extracts, and increased the humectants to include panthenol and Honeyquat (which will do double duty as a skin conditioner). You can use another cationic polymer here - like polyquat 7 - if you don't have Honeyquat. Or leave it out.

MAXED OUT TONER FOR DRY SKIN
HEATED WATER PHASE
19% water
20% aloe vera
20% hydrosol of choice
20% another hydrosol of choice
0.5% allantoin
5% Cromollient SCE or water soluble shea or water soluble olive oil (PEG-7 olivate) or another water soluble emollient
2% hydrolyzed oat protein
2% hydrolyzed silk protein
2.5% sodium lactate or sodium PCA
2% niacinamide

COOL DOWN PHASE
2% panthenol
0.5% green tea extract
0.5% chamomile extract
0.5% banana extract (or another extract of choice)
3% honeyquat
0.5% preservative of choice (use as directed)

As you can see, this toner is filled with all kinds of decadent goodies - two types of proteins, all kinds of humectants, and extracts galore! Feel free to add witch hazel or other liquids. Play around with the recipe and add a little more of this, a little less of that, and a whole lot of something else to see what your skin likes. You can add more humectants if you wish - add up to 3% glycerin and remove 3% from the water amount, add up to 3% tamarind seed extract and remove 3% from the water amount, and so on!

Toners are great ways to play with various ingredients because you can make them now and use them in about an hour. These toners will be pH balanced to about 6ish or so. If you want to reduce the pH, you can add 0.2% citric acid (0.2 grams is about 0.15 cc - one of those little MMU scoops) or add AHAs, Multifruit BSC, or other acids to take it down further.

And you can use a toner all over your body for those times you need extra hydration. As Soap Lady pointed out in her comment in this post, "As an aesthetician and soapmaker, I have always followed the golden rule of skin care which is "A cleanser is always followed by a toner" The toner removes excess cleanser and restores the skin's pH. Body toners have been used in spas for years and at home our lotions are the substitute for toners." So using a toner after you clean is a great way to remove excess surfactants and a fantastic way to give our skin a little more moisture before our facial lotions!

Join me tomorrow for more fun formulating for dry skin!

17 comments:

Mitch said...

I'm excited to try this toner tonight. I was thinking about making this into a gel, and then I remembered you did a post on making a toner into a gel. Your blog is awesome.

http://swiftcraftymonkey.blogspot.com/2009/06/gels-make-gel-based-toner.html

seventh77 said...

The recipes here reminded me of a detangler spray I just made today for my hair. When I first applied the finished product to my hair, combability was awesome, but later as it began to dry, my hair became extremely sticky, and now combing is very hard because my hair is so sticky. I used:

69.4% Water
5% Panthenol
3% Goat milk
5% Sodium lactate (powder form)
3% Propylene glycol
2% Silk amino acid
2% MSM powder
3% BTMS-50
3% Cetrimonium chloride
4% Honeyquat

No problems with emulsifying the product, and no separation issues. Anyway, what could be causing the EXTREME stickiness? I touch my hair with my hands and it makes my hands disgustingly sticky. I thought maybe it was the silk amino acid, as I had 10% in another recipe (face toner) that was very sticky, and when I tested the texture of the silk amino acids by itself, it was quite sticky. But this hair detangler is insane for how sticky it is, and I drastically cut back on the amount of protein used. I've googled sodium lactate, and everywhere I can find says it's not sticky. The propylene glycol wasn't sticky on its own, and even though honeyquat is really sticky on its own when I've accidentally gotten it on my hands, I've made plenty of creams before with 5% honeyquat and they're never sticky.

I really wanted this recipe to work, but now I don't know what to do =/ If you have any advice, it would be very much appreciated.

Susan Barclay-Nichols said...

Hi seventh77. Why all these additives? There's a lot going on here and too many humectants for a hair product. Sodium lactate, propylene glycol, panthenol, and honeyquat are all humectants, and you've got 17% in here. That's far too much, and I think this is what is making your product sticky! I'd go with 2% panthenol, 2% honeyquat, and 2% of either sodium lactate or propylene glycol.

I don't know why you'd use goat milk in it - it's going to go rancid as its exposed to the air during the day and smell just awful! - and I'm not really sure why you'd use MSM in a leave in conditioner. I really think you need to pare back these ingredients to a bare minimum.

I'd suggest making something with water, BTMS-50, cetrimonium chloride, maybe panthenol, and maybe one humectant and see how your hair responds. Then add the ingredients one by one. I think you'll see that you really don't need all those humectants in one product!

As an aside, in the future, could you post the hair questions in a topic on that subject? That way, anyone who is interested can see your question instead of people who just stumble upon it here.

melian1 said...

i made this today, my first toner ever. it sure was easy, and i really like it. i did have to sub out some things so i could use what i had on hand and not wait for an order, but i'm loving it. i did the middle one.

it is giving me ideas...
lol

seventh77 said...

Hi Susan,

I cut it back to:

83.4% Water
5% Panthenol (I know, but I couldn't help myself)
2% Sodium lactate
2% Silk amino acid
4% BTMS-50
3% Cetrimonium chloride

And it's just as sticky, even if I spray it on my hands or face and use as a moisturizing spray/toner. I've made creams with 5% panthenol and 4% honeyquat and they've never been sticky.

=(

Susan Barclay-Nichols said...

Hi seventh77. Like I said in my previous comment, I suggest going back to basics and just try the BTMS-50 and cetac and add the other ingredients one by one to see what's causing the problem. Add the panthenol at 2%, not 5%, and leave out the sodium lactate entirely. Try the recipe at 2% panthenol, 2% BTMS-50 and 2% cetac, the rest being water and preservative. Try this on your hair. If you don't love it, then add another ingredient to the mix in the next batch, and so on.

I think part of the problem is that you're using rinse off levels of ingredients in a leave in conditioner. Try the 2% recipe above, then let me know what you think.

Let's move this discussion to this post on leave in conditioners as it's a more appropriate location and will offer information to others.

Leman said...

Hi Susan,

I made this toner but sub out/add some ingredients. Something in the heated water phase turned jelly like and I can't work out which ingredient. I would appreciate your feedback on this.

HEATED WATER PHASE
42% water
20% aloe vera concentrate
3% glycerin
0.5% allantoin
5% water soluble emollient - Olive Oil PEG - 10 Esters
2% hydrolyzed oat protein
5% sea kelp bio
7% propylene glycol

COOL DOWN PHASE
3% hyaluronic acid
1% lupine peptides
2% panthenol
5% multifruit
2% salicylic acid
0.5% green tea extract
0.5% chamomile extract
0.5% banana extract
1% preservative

thank you
Leman

Leman said...

Susan, forgot to mention few other things re the above post:

1) The aloe vera concentrate was 10:1.

2) The toner was a little bit too sticky when applied. Am I using too many ingredients that's making sticky?

3) When it cooled down I could see precipitation in the bottle. I put the powdered extracts (2% salicylic acid, 0.5% green tea extract, 0.5% chamomile extract, 0.5% banana extract) into a little container, then added a little of the heated phase (when it reached 45˚ to 50˚C) to it and mixed well. Have I got too many powdered extracts in the cool down phase to cause precipitation?

thanks a lot.

Susan Barclay-Nichols said...

Hi Leman. There are so many ingredients, it could be anything causing the gelling. I'm going to guess it's due to way too many humectants - you've got a ton in there, way more than I would ever suggest (which is also causing the stickiness) - and possibly due to the sea kelp bioferment, which can offer some thickening. The precipitate is likely salicylic acid - it's notorious for being hard to incorporate into a product.

My suggestion is to pare back the humectants - it seems like you have too much hyaluronic acid in there (suggested usage is 0.01% to 1% as per Lotioncrafter) and go lighter on the propylene glycol. I would like to see you create a basic recipe, then add the ingredients one by one to the product to see where the problem might be, but that will take time and ingredients!

Leman said...

Susan, thanks a lot for the reply.

The hyaluronic acid wasn't the pure powder, it was the gel; 3% of a 1% solution (so that's actually 0.03%)

Ivana said...

Hi Susan! I've been reading your blog for a month and I finally decide to make some products. First of all I wanna thank you for writing this blog. Because of you I finally can make my own products. I am from Croatia and even here people reading your blog. I had few separations but Ion the end I always found out mistakes I did exept with this MAxed out toner for dry skin. I used all ingredients that you have in the recepie and in the same percentage and on the end Crodamol SCE felt down to the bottom. I did experiment then with 85% water 10%aloe vera and 5% SCE and the same think happened . Can you please explaine me why if SCE is disppersible in the water?
I would like to share also my recepie that I made trying to copy channel no rinse cleasing milk
HEATED WATER PHASE
75% water
3% decyl glucoside

HEATED OIL PHASE
5% castor oil
5% sunflower oil
3% SCE
3% C14-22 alcohol (and) C12-20 alkyl glucoside
2% cetyl alcohol

COOL DOWN
2% panthenol
1% flavour oil
1% preservative

Susan Barclay-Nichols said...

Hi Ivana. Thanks for visiting the blog, and thanks for sharing your recipe. I have no idea why the Cromollient SCE fell to the bottom. It shouldn't. It should stay dispersed. I'm afraid that without any other information, I can't really be more helpful.

Anonymous said...

Could I just make a toner with Witch hazel, Rose water, ACV, Green Tea extract and preservative?? Trying to keep things simple. Thanks for your thoughts.

Susan Barclay-Nichols said...

Hi Anonymous. Please rewrite your comment with your name or I will have to delete it...

You can make a toner with anything you want. I guess the question is what do you think each ingredient will bring to your skin? What will the pH be at the end if you are adding vinegar? What will it smell like?

Why don't you try making it and see what happens! Let us know!

Cheryl said...

Thank you Susan! I guess I will try a small test and see.

Kirsten Thomas. said...

Susan, what would happen if I added essential oils to a toner? I know that we are working with water soluable ingredients, but is there a way to add essential oils, or would they just float to the top? I am guessing the only way would be to make an emulsifier in the recipe? Can I have any suggestions? thanks!

Susan Barclay-Nichols said...

Hi Kirsten! As I mention in the other post in which you commented...

Adding tea tree oil to a toner is a little more difficult because a toner is generally a water only product with no solubilizers. And therein lies the problem. A lot of our solubilizers feel sticky. Polysorbate 20 can feel a bit sticky, even at 1%, so I'm going to suggest something like Cromollient SCE, Caprol Micro Express, or caprylyl/capryl glucoside to avoid the stickiness. (If you don't mind polysorbate 20, use that. I'm just not a fan!) Since I already use Caprol Micro Express as an emollient in this recipe, I can just add my tea tree oil at 1% in the product during the cool down phase!

Do a quick search for polysorbate 20 or solubilizer and you'll come up with a whole whack of posts on this topic!