Thursday, January 19, 2012
Essential oil: Rosemary essential oil - anti-inflammatory studies
"The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of rosemary essential oil (REO) on experimental models of nociception and inflammation in animals. These data suggest that REO possesses anti-inflammatory and peripheral antinociceptive activity." (1) And this study noted that, "carnosic acid has a strong anti-inflammatory potential". And this study on wound care with rosemary essential oil noted, "Reduced inflammation and enhanced wound contraction, re-epithelialization, regeneration of granulation tissue, angiogenesis and collagen deposition were detected in the treated wounds. Conclusions: Results indicated that the essential oil of Rosmarinus officinalis was the most active in healing diabetic wounds and provide a scientific evidence for the traditional use of this herb in wound treatment. However, further scientific verification is required to confirm and assess the range of wound healing potential of essential oils of Rosemary chemotypes." (2) As a note, this study used "aqueous extract and essential oil" and each was applied to the wounds. The essential oil was found to be more active.
1,8-cineole and carnosic acid have anti-inflammatory properties. Does it work if we just inhale it? No. We have to actively apply it or inject it (please do not go around injecting yourself with rosemary essential oil, regardless of what the studies say!)
Can we come to the conclusion that rosemary essential oil can behave as an anti-inflammatory? I think we can!
If you want to know more about the mechanisms by which carnosic acid works, look for the paper Carnosic acid and carnosol potently inhibit human 5-lipoxygenase and suppress pro-inflammatory responses of stimulated human polymorphonuclear leukocyte (Biochemical Pharmacology; Jul2008, Vol. 76 Issue 1, p91-97, 7p), where the authors state "Recently, we found that CA [carnosic acid] and CS [carnosol] activate the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, implying an anti-inflammatory potential on the level of gene regulation." Or look for the paper entitled Carnosic acid and carnosol, phenolic diterpene compounds of the labiate herbs rosemary and sage, are activators of the human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma. (Planta Medica (PLANTA MEDICA), 2006 Aug; 72(10): 881-7 (56 ref))
1. Takaki, I., Bersani-Amado, L., Vendruscolo, A., Sartoretto, S., Diniz, S., Bersani-Amado, C., & Cuman, R. (2008). Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil in experimental animal models. Journal Of Medicinal Food, 11(4), 741-746.
2. Healing potential of Rosmarinus officinalis L. on full-thickness excision cutaneous wounds in alloxan-induced-diabetic BALB/c mice. Journal of Ethnopharmacology; Sep2010, Vol. 131 Issue 2, p443-450, 8p