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Aqua (water): Our solvent.
Caprylic/capric triglyceride: Fractionated coconut oil. A very light feeling oil with a shelf life of about 2 years. (HLB 5)
Theobroma cacao (cocoa) seed butter: A very moisturizing and occlusive butter. (HLB 6).
Jojoba esters: These are the beads you find in the product. They are fully hydrogenated jojoba esters to create these small beads. They are generally used at 1% to 15%.
Cetyl esters: A thickener that is lighter than cetyl alcohol. It has a shelf life of about 2 years. Generally used at 1% to 5%. (HLB 10)
Glycerin: A good humectant generally used at 1% to 5% (it can get kind of sticky at higher amounts).
Cera alba (beeswax): Used to thicken products and create a waterproof layer. (HLB 12).
Polysorbate 60: A high HLB (15) emulsifier that can be combined with a low HLB emulsifier to create an emulsification system.
Sorbitan stearate: A low HLB (4.7) emulsifier that can be combined with a high HLB emulsifier to create an emulsification system.
Eucalyptus globulus (eucalyptus) oil: An essential oil.
Prunus amygdalus dulcis (sweet almond) oil: A light feeling vegetable oil with 10% to 30% linoleic acid. It has a shelf life of about 12 months. (HLB 7)
Panthenol: Vitamin B5 used for moisturizing.
Cetearyl alcohol: Like cetyl alcohol, it's a fatty alcohol that thickens our products, leaving a waxier feeling than cetyl alcohol or cetyl esters. It has about a 2 year shelf life.
Sodium hydroxide: This is used to increase pH.
Limonene: A component of essential oils.
Phenoxyethanol: A preservative. Can be found with benzoic acid and dehydroacetic acid in Optiphen ND.
Benzoic acid: A preservative. Can be found in Optiphen ND with phenoxyethanol and dehydroacetic acid in Optiphen ND.
Dehydroacetic acid: Fungicide and bactericide. (Click here for the Wiki link.) Can be found in Optiphen ND.
Ethylhexylglycerin: Preservative. Could be used to suspend phenoxyethanol.
Polyaminopropyl biguanide: A preservative. Can be found as Cosmocil CQ.
What kind of product do we have here? We have a very well preserved oil in water lotion with a shelf life of about 1 year (the sweet almond oil ruins the possible 2 year life span of the product). It is made using polysorbate 60 and sorbitan stearate as the emulsifiers with cetyl esters and cetearyl alcohol to thicken it. It contains jojoba ester beads as an exfoliant, so we know it's intended to be removed, most likely with a cloth of some kind rather than rinsing.
Where do you think the 1% category starts? I'm thinking with the essential oil (eucalyptus) because you wouldn't want more than 1% of this particular oil on your face. So everything below that will be at 1% or less.
How do we figure out how much we need of each ingredient? I'm thinking about 10% fractionated coconut oil, 5% cocoa butter (we don't want it too thick), 3% cetyl esters, 3% glycerin, 2% beeswax, 1% sweet almond oil, and 1% cetearyl alcohol, for a total oil phase of 25%. I'm not counting the cetyl esters in the oil amount. Although they are an ester, they aren't being emulsified into the product, so we don't need to include them when figuring out the oil phase. (Start with 10% jojoba ester beads and work up or down depending upon your preferred skin feel.)
Let's use the HLB system for this product. If you prefer to use e-wax, Polawax, or BTMS-50, you'll want to use those at about 25% of the oil phase, so 25% of 25% = 6.25%.
Fractionated coconut oil - 10% of oil phase, 10/25 = 0.4 x 5 = 2.00
Cocoa butter - 5% of oil phase, 5/25 = 0.20 x 6 = 1.20
Cetyl esters - 3% of oil phase, 3/25 = 0.12 x 10 = 1.20
Beeswax - 2% of oil phase - 2/25 = 0.08 x 12 = 0.96
Sweet almond oil - 1% of oil phase - 1/25 = 0.04 x 7 = 0.28
Cetearyl alcohol - 1% of oil phase - 1/25 = 0.04 x 1.5 = 0.62
For a total required HLB of the oil phase of 6.26.
If our emulsifiers are sorbitan stearate (HLB 4.7) and polysorbate 60 (HLB 15), then we'll need 85% sodium stearate (0.85 x 4.7 = 3.995) and 15% polysorbate 60 (0.15 x 15 = 2.250) for a total HLB of 6.245 (and we want 6.26, so close enough!) If we're using 5% emulsifier, we'll need 4.25% sodium stearate and 0.75% polysorbate 60.
Let's take a look at our recipe using HLB emulsifiers (with information afterwards on how to make this with Polawax).
POSSIBLE DUPLICATION FOR LIZ EARLE GENTLE FACE EXFOLIATOR
HEATED WATER PHASE
HEATED OIL PHASE
10% fractionated coconut oil
5% cocoa butter
3% cetyl esters
4.25% sorbitan stearate
0.75% polysorbate 60
1% sweet almond oil
1% cetearyl alcohol
COOL DOWN PHASE
0.5% to 1% eucalyptus oil
0.5% to 1% preservative
REALLY COOLED DOWN PHASE
10% jojoba esters
Follow the basic lotion making instructions for this product.
These purple ones are from Voyageur. I'm sure you'd want something more adult and sophisticated like the white ones, but the coloured ones are fun! I use the white ones in my cleanser because my friends think the coloured ones look a little weird, plus I could only find the 60/100 in white.
If you want to use e-wax or Polawax, follow the rule of thumb for this product (for Polawax it's 25% of the oil phase, which means we need 6.25% Polawax) and reduce the amount of water by the same amount (so you need to take 1.25% out of the water amount for a total of 56%).
If you want to make a foaming moisturizing cleanser with jojoba ester beads, click here for my favourite recipe. And here's how to modify it for oily skin.
Join me for more fun duplicating products tomorrow!