Thursday, January 19, 2017

The newbie section and FAQ are great places to find information!

If you're a beginner and you're just starting out, please check out the newbie section to see all kinds of posts on topics from when to add a preservative, when to add an anti-oxidant, what the difference is between these things, how to make products, and so on. You can find all kinds of starter recipes there, too, like a beginner's lotion, body butter, whipped butter, lotion bars, and more.

Where's the newbie section? Take a look at the right hand side of the blog where it says "Links to lists" and there are all kinds of sections listed there. If you can't find that section, maybe do a page search - I know it's command F on a Mac, not sure about other operating systems - and find it that way.

In that Links to Lists section, you'll also see the Frequently Asked Questions part of the blog. There are tons of interesting things there, like where to find supplies, why we heat and hold, and so on. I encourage you to check out that section as well. Again, if you can't find the FAQ section in the links to lists section, maybe do a page search - again, that's command F on a Mac - and see where it's located.

When you're reading a post, click on some of the links to learn more about the topics I discuss in that post, or check out the "related posts" section I often create at the bottom of the post. It's a pain in the bum to create those links, and I probably spend as much time doing that as I do writing the post, it's just so much work, so knowing that you value them and use them is a pretty big deal to me.

I'm writing this post to let you know I won't be answering any questions posed via comments, e-mail, Facebook, Twitter, etc. or showing you the way to those sections in the future or responding to questions that could easily be found by clicking a link or two. It seems like a very poor use of my time to answer the same five questions over and over again, especially when I've created whole sections in which I've done that repeatedly. If you feel you can't find something, there's always this tour of the blog I've put together - again, you can find this link at the top right hand side of every page - or you could do a search to see what you find.

I'm so happy you want to make lovely things responsibly and safely, but consider that part of the adventure is looking for information yourself. Searching is fun as you never know what you'll find! Remember Terry Prachett's saying from the Discworld series - "Build a man a fire, he'll be warm for a day. Set a man on fire, and he'll be warm for the rest of his life." This blog is all about setting you on fire (figuratively, of course...)

I remember doing a search on the Dish forum to find out why my bath bombs failed, and I found all these wonderful posts about making lotions, shampoo, conditioner, and more, which lead to all that you see here! Why would I deprive you of all that joy of discovery? 

Tuesday, January 17, 2017

Newbie Tuesday: Creating a facial toner (part four) - adding cosmeceuticals

Yesterday we took a look at cosmeceuticals and a few that we could incorporate into our toners. Today we'll create a few recipes you can try at home!

Let's say you liked this simple toner for dry skin with rose water and cucumber, what could we add to this mix?

Quick note: This toner is great for all skin types, not just people with dry skin! If you have oily skin, considering switching the cucumber extract for something like rosemary or grapeseed extract, if you want, or not. It's up to you! 

SIMPLE ROSE WATER & CUCUMBER TONER FOR DRY SKIN
HEATED WATER PHASE
69% distilled water
20% rose water or lavender hydrosol
5% witch hazel
2% one of glycerin, propylene glycol, or sodium lactate
2% one of glycerin, propylene glycol, or sodium lactate
0.5% allantoin

COOL DOWN PHASE
0.5% powdered cucumber extract
0.5% powdered chamomile extract
0.5% liquid Germall Plus

We have some allantoin in the mix, what else could benefit dry skin? I'd like to use a hydrolyzed protein like oat or silk or something similar to film form. (I've noticed seaweed extract is getting popular but I find it smells a bit fishy to me, so I haven't used it much. I find sea kelp or bull kelp extract is very good, and it doesn't have that fishy smell. A slight brininess as if I'm by the seaside, and I love that!) Let's use that in place for a hydrolyzed protein here.

Let's try adding 2% niacinamide and 4% n-acetyl glucosamine to this recipe, too. I like the idea of reducing pigmentation and evening out our skin tone while increasing hydration to our skin. This is a great idea for dry skin!

Important aside: If you add something to a recipe, you remove the same amount from the distilled water amount to keep the recipe totalling 100%. In this case, every ingredient we add will come out of the 69% we've allotted for distilled water in the recipe above. (Click here for more information!) You'll notice we have added 9% to this recipe - 3% sea kelp, 2% niacinamide, 4% n-acetyl glucosamine - so we have to remove 9% of the distilled water amount, leaving us with 60% distilled water.

NOT SO SIMPLE TONER FOR DRY SKIN - ROSE WATER & CUCUMBER SEA KELP, NIACINAMIDE, AND NAG
HEATED WATER PHASE
60% distilled water
20% rose water or lavender hydrosol
5% witch hazel
3% sea kelp/bull kelp extract
2% niacinamide
2% one of glycerin, propylene glycol, or sodium lactate
2% one of glycerin, propylene glycol, or sodium lactate
0.5% allantoin

COOL DOWN PHASE
4% n-acetyl glucosamine
0.5% powdered cucumber extract
0.5% powdered chamomile extract
0.5% liquid Germall Plus

Heat the heated water phase to about 60˚C in a double boiler to make sure all the powders dissolve, then remove from the heat and add the cool down phase at 45˚C or slightly lower. I generally put my powders into a small shot glass, then mix until they've dissolved before adding to the bigger container, but you can add them to the container and mix well. The bigger clumps will dissolve over time, so it's not a big deal. Let cool to room temperature, and package in a bottle. I like to use a spray bottle for my toners, but you could use any bottle you want.

If you have really dry skin, you can add a water soluble oil to this product to make something very moisturizing! I'm thinking adding 3% makes quite a bit of difference, so you'd add that to the heated water phase and take 3% out of the distilled water amount. And where's the panthenol I love so much? That would be awesome in a toner!

NOT SO SIMPLE TONER FOR DRY SKIN - ROSE WATER & CUCUMBER WITH PANTHENOL AND WATER SOLUBLE OILS
HEATED WATER PHASE
64% distilled water
20% rose water or lavender hydrosol
5% witch hazel
3% water soluble olive oil (PEG-7 olivate)
2% one of glycerin, propylene glycol, or sodium lactate
2% one of glycerin, propylene glycol, or sodium lactate
0.5% allantoin

COOL DOWN PHASE
2% liquid panthenol (if you have powdered, use it in the heated water phase)
0.5% powdered cucumber extract
0.5% powdered chamomile extract
0.5% liquid Germall Plus

Please follow the directions above.

What if you wanted to use something like hyaluronic acid in your toner? I've been using this more and more lately, although I can't say that it's working better for me than something like glycerin, I like how not sticky it is in comparison. What I do is make up a gel of 1% LMW hyaluronic acid* (from Lotioncrafter), 98.5% distilled water, and 0.5% liquid Germall Plus. Sprinkle the hyaluronic acid powder over the water, mix until it's all wet - meaning it's not white looking any more - and let sit for three hours. Return, mix a bit, then rejoice. Put it in a bottle and use it when you need to use hyaluronic acid in your products. (Original recipe for this gel at Lotioncrafter.) If you've used 1% in 99% water, you have a 1% gel. So if you add 10% of this gel to a toner, you'll have 0.1% hyaluronic acid in the gel, which is a good amount.

Let's see what the first recipe looks like with this hyaluronic acid in it. Remember when we add something to the product, we have to remove something from the distilled water phase. If you add 10% HA gel, remove 10% from the distilled water amount, leaving 50% distilled water.

NOT SO SIMPLE TONER FOR DRY SKIN - ROSE WATER & CUCUMBER SEA KELP, NIACINAMIDE, NAG, AND HYALURONIC ACID
HEATED WATER PHASE
50% distilled water
20% rose water or lavender hydrosol
10% hyaluronic acid gel (as made above)
5% witch hazel
3% sea kelp/bull kelp extract
2% niacinamide
2% one of glycerin, propylene glycol, or sodium lactate
2% one of glycerin, propylene glycol, or sodium lactate
0.5% allantoin

COOL DOWN PHASE
4% n-acetyl glucosamine
0.5% powdered cucumber extract
0.5% powdered chamomile extract
0.5% liquid Germall Plus

Please follow the directions as above.

Wowee! This toner packs a serious punch as it's filled with all kinds of film formers, hydrators, humectants, and more! (We'll revisit this recipe when we get to gels as this makes an amazing serum and under eye gel!)

You can modify the toners found in this post and this post to include these cosmeceuticals and more. There are so many cosmeceuticals, botanicals, extracts, and more that we can add to toners and facial cleansers. To go through them all would take years, so what I can offer you is this: You can add these cosmeceuticals to your toners quite easily by checking if they are water or oil soluble and learning how much of each ingredient to use. Remove the amount you're using from the distilled water amount, and enjoy!

Make small batches - 50 grams to 100 grams - the first time you add something, and keep great notes about how you like it. Add one ingredient at a time when you're trying something new so you can isolate the problem or the joy easily. Apart from some kind of immediate allergic response, you really have to give a new product at least seven days to see what impact it will have on your skin. If you get a pimple the next day, it's not from what you did the day before, it's what you did the week before. If you have some kind of stinging, burning, itching, and other adverse reaction, please stop using the ingredient immediately!

What ingredients are you interested in using in a toner? What ingredients do you have at home that you'd like to incorporate into something water soluble, like a toner or cleanser? Please share your thoughts in the comments below and we can figure out a few recipes for next week's final post on toners (for now). 

If you'd like to play along or if you've missed a post, here's a listing of the complete series...
Newbie Tuesday: We're making facial products! 
Shopping list
Equipment list
Let's start making facial cleansers! - Your skin type
Surfactants - what are they?
Meet the surfactants
pH of our surfactants
Facial products - the base recipe
Turning your cleanser into an exfoliating cleanser (part one) - physical exfoliants
Turning your cleanser into an exfoliating cleanser (part two) - physical exfoliants
Turning your cleanser into an exfoliating cleanser by adding chemical exfoliants
Modifying your facial cleanser into a foamer bottle recipe
Creating a facial toner (part one)
Creating a facial toner (part two)
Creating a facial toner (part three) - cosmeceuticals

Extra supply information as I used ingredients that weren't part of the original shopping trip in these recipes:


I offer the above links purely as information on where I buy my supplies. These are not affiliate links and I receive nothing if you purchase these ingredients from these stores. If you know of other shops that carry these ingredients, please feel free to share that information in the comments below with link, if possible. Please, no obvious advertising or spam! 

Monday, January 16, 2017

Newbie Tuesday: Creating a facial toner (part three) - introduction to cosmeceuticals

When last we met - which was a while ago, sorry! - we were looking at modifying a basic toner recipe using humectants, hydrolyzed proteins, cationic polymers, and more. This week I'd like to take a look at modifying the recipe further using what we call cosmeceuticals.

What's a cosmeceutical? They're "cosmetic products with properties very similar to a pharmaceutical product (drug-like benefits)". (p. 295, Handbook of Cosmetic Science and Technology.) In other words, they are active ingredients we add to our products to offer a specific benefit, like anti-aging, creating a more uniform skin tone, alleviating acne, and so on. You can never make a claim that the product you make with those ingredients will fix, heal, or repair anything, but that doesn't mean you can't include ingredients in your products that might be of benefit. Ingredients like co-enzyme Q10, niacinamide, or MSM would be considered cosmeceuticals.

You already know of my love of allantoin, and we've already been working with it in our toners, but it's a great example of a cosmeceutical or a cosmetic ingredient that offers all kinds of benefits, like protecting our skin from the elements or increasing the water content.

How can we add these kinds of ingredients? First check to see if they're water or oil soluble. Toners are all about the water, so our ingredients have to be water soluble. If they aren't, then check to see if you can use something else or if you could add something to the toner that would make them more soluble. Or consider using it in something more suitable, like a serum or a moisturizer.

I'm having a love affair with niacinamide. Studies have shown that 2% in a facial moisturizer can increase skin's keratin, ceramides, and barrier lipids which results in a reduction of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and an increase in collagen synthesis. 2% can result in a 23% reduction in sebum production and pore diameter. It can reduce hyperpigmentation of age and sun spots. And it can reduce the damage from environmental causes, which reduces the irritation, inflammation, and skin redness from things like the sun, cold, or weather as well as application of straight SLS.  Even at 5%, there's a lack of irritation and redness on our faces ('cause sometimes niacin can make our skin flush, but not at 2% or 5%). It can reduce the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles and decreases skin blotchiness and "pebbling" or roughness on facial skin. It also behaves as an anti-inflammatory and enhances skin's barrier functions.

It is a water soluble, heat tolerant ingredient, so you can use it in the heated phase of a product, and it's suitable for toners. I generally use it at 2% in the heated phase or dissolved into a little warm water that I add to my toner.

Related post: Making a facial toner with niacinamide

Niacinamide works very well with n-acetyl glucosamine, so I've been using that at 4% in toners lately. It's a bio-identical ingredient that can reduce hyperpigmentation in the skin, that can also increase hydration by increasing the production of hyaluronic acid in our skin.

Related post: Making a water in silicone serum

We could also add a water soluble oil, something like PEG-7 olivate or water soluble olive oil, that's been modified to mix easily with water. Adding 3% to a toner can offer some great moisturization for skin that likes oils without having the hassle of using a sticky solubilizer.

Related post:
Oil free gel moisturizer with water soluble olive oil
Making a facial cleanser with water soluble olive oil
As a note, there are so many links to making things with this ingredient in the post above, so check it out if you're interested in learning more!

An ingredient I'm asked about a lot is salicylic acid, which is great for acne prone skin. Unfortunately, it dissolves very poorly in water - 1 gram dissolves in 460 grams of water, and that's not even close to the 0.5% to 2% we want to use in a product - but works well in alcohol or glycols, like propylene glycol, so if you wanted to use it, you'd have to first mix it with one of those ingredients, then add that to the toner and mix well.

For instance, you can dissolve about 2 grams of salicylic acid in 10 grams of alcohol or propylene glycol, then add to that to the toner.

On top of knowing how to dissolve SA, you do have to consider how to reduce the pH of the product as well, as it should have a pH of around 3.5, so you'll need to get a good meter and find different ways of reducing the pH, like using citric acid.

If you're interested in learning more about incorporating salicylic acid into your products, please visit this post in which I included a whole bunch of links from Friday, January 13, 2017.

References:
Personal Formulator FAQ 
UL Prospector article about using salicylic acid

If you don't want to go through all the hassle of using salicylic acid, consider using another version of the ingredient. Would something like willow bark extract, which is water soluble, work in this product? Yes, it would, and you can get it as a powder or a liquid, both of which are easy to incorporate into a water only product. When I have a powder, I use it at 0.5% in the cool down phase. Use a little water to dissolve it, then add it back to the product and mix well. The down side is that you do end up with a toner that's a little on the brown side, but it won't show up on your skin that way. If this really bothers you, consider getting a liquid willow bark extract that is clear, like the one you see here, that can be used at 2% to 5%.

Related post: Formulating facial products with willow bsrk

What if we wanted to add something like co-enzyme Q10, an oil soluble cosmeceutical that behaves as an anti-oxidant that promotes collagen and elastin synthesis? Because it's oil soluble, you'd need to use a solubilizer like polysorbate 80, caprylyl/capryl glucoside, or PEG-40 hydrogenated castor oil to incorporate the it into the water soluble toner, but I'd like to suggest saving something like this for a serum or moisturizer as these solubilizers can feel quite sticky on the skin when used like this. If you really want to make a toner with this kind of ingredient, my suggestion is to dissolve the powder into a light oil like squalane or fractionated coconut oil, then mix that with the solubilizer at equal parts - which may or may not work, depending upon the oil and solubilizer you use, so consider starting at 1:1 then moving to 2 parts solubilizer, one part oil, and so on until it mixes in well.

Having said this, when we start working with gels, you'll see how we can incorporate a bit of oil soluble ingredients into them to create oily gels, gelled toners, and other spot treatments. 

There are so many ingredients we could use in a toner, and it could take me all year to go through them one by one. We'll take a look at a few tomorrow, but I'd love to hear what interests you! Please share your thoughts in the comments below!

If you'd like to play along or if you've missed a post, here's a listing of the complete series...
Newbie Tuesday: We're making facial products! 
Shopping list
Equipment list
Let's start making facial cleansers! - Your skin type
Surfactants - what are they?
Meet the surfactants
pH of our surfactants
Facial products - the base recipe
Turning your cleanser into an exfoliating cleanser (part one) - physical exfoliants
Turning your cleanser into an exfoliating cleanser (part two) - physical exfoliants
Turning your cleanser into an exfoliating cleanser by adding chemical exfoliants
Modifying your facial cleanser into a foamer bottle recipe
Creating a facial toner (part one)
Creating a facial toner (part two)

If there's an asterisk beside a link, it means it'll take you away from my page to a supplier of those ingredients. These are not affiliate links; I receive nothing from these companies for clicking through or buying anything. As usual, I'm sharing where I get my ingredients from awesome suppliers.

Join me tomorrow as we look at a few cosmeceuticals we can include in our toners.

Saturday, January 14, 2017

The new schedule for my classes at Voyageur Soap & Candle is here!

Hi everyone! It's a little late in the new year, but here's the schedule for the classes I teach at Voyageur Soap & Candle in Surrey, B.C.

I'm offering a few extra classes this season: Shorter themed classes like Valentine's Day, Mother's Day, and Father's Day, as well as all day classes based on my e-books, like Lotion Making 101, Hair Care, and Facial products. As well, we're offering an Eco Skincare class in which all the recipes use plant based, green, and/or ECOcert ingredients, like Ritamulse SCG. Click on the link for all the classes and dates!

If you call and find out the class is full, please put your name on the waiting list and we'll do our best to create another date or two for another one, especially the more time sensitive classes, like Valentine's Day, for instance. And people could cancel, so you could be slotted into the first available date!

As well, I'm free to teach on Monday and Tuesday, so if you find the weekends don't work for you, please let us know and we may be able to offer the classes on another day. In short, let us know what interests you and we'll figure something out!

Thanks so much to Emily for the awesome picture of all the products we made in the facial products class at the top of this post! I absolutely love this picture! 

And to the right are the products we made in the Gels, gels, gels! class based on the e-zine with the same name! I love playing with gels! 




Friday, January 13, 2017

Update on the Newbie Tuesday facial products series

I thought I'd share an update on my plans for what we're making next. I'm sorry we got off track recently, but I think I planned more than I could handle given what's been happening with our family lately. I think this schedule I'm planning out here is do-able, although there may be side trips to other topics, the way I ended up adding today's post on salicylic acid and acne.

Monday, January 16 - Toners and cosmeceuticals (theory)
Tuesday, January 17th - Toners and cosmeceuticals (recipes)
Tuesday, January 24th - Toner summary and recipe round up
Tuesday, January 31st - Gels, gels, gels - introduction to carbomers
Tuesday, February 7th - Gels, gels, gels - part two
Tuesday, February 14th - Gels, gels, gels - part three
Tuesday, February 21st - Gels, gels gels - summary and recipe round up
Tuesday, February 28th - Micellar waters - introduction
Tuesday, March 7th - Micellar waters - part one
Tuesday, March 14th - Micellar waters - part two
Tuesday, March 21st - Micellar waters and make-up removers
Tuesday, March 28th - Water soluble facial product round up
April and onwards: Facial oils and sera, moisturizers, products that contain oil

I'll put out the shopping list for the moisturizers and products that include oils shortly. Please note, we'll be working with oils with a longer shelf life - at least six months - as we probably won't get making those things until mid to late April and I'd hate to have your oils go off before we get to the end!

If you have suggestions for products you'd like to see in this series, please include your thoughts in the comments below. Please note we are not duplicating commercial products exactly, I'm just looking for some ideas for categories that look interesting, like micellar waters, for instance.

If you'd like to play along or if you've missed a post, here's a listing of the complete series...
Newbie Tuesday: We're making facial products! 
Shopping list
Equipment list
Let's start making facial cleansers! - Your skin type
Surfactants - what are they?
Meet the surfactants
pH of our surfactants
Facial products - the base recipe
Turning your cleanser into an exfoliating cleanser (part one) - physical exfoliants
Turning your cleanser into an exfoliating cleanser (part two) - physical exfoliants
Turning your cleanser into an exfoliating cleanser by adding chemical exfoliants
Modifying your facial cleanser into a foamer bottle recipe
Creating a facial toner (part one)
Creating a facial toner (part two)

A few resources that might interest you today about salicylic acid and acne

I found a few resources that might interest you if you're interested in learning more about formulating with salicylic acid in your products, something I'll be discussing as we get back to making toners in the Newbie Tuesday series on facial products, which starts again on Monday, January 16th.

What you see here is willow bark, not salicylic acid, but I don't have any of the latter at home and I really wanted a picture to go with this post! 

Formulating for acne for pharmacists - This is a really interesting document if you're interested in learning more about using salicylic acid and other powerful ingredients for acne. I will warn you that the formulae aren't by weight, but I trust that pharmacists won't steer us wrong, and they're using ingredients at much higher levels than we do at home. But it's an interesting read for learning more about how to formulate for acne prone skin.

As an aside, I had terrible acne as a teenager, and the only thing that worked for me was a prescribed sulphur product that I had to mix together myself. I think that's on this sheet! 

Solublity of salicylic acid in organic solvents - This is a great article if you want to learn about all the possiblities for dissolving salicylic acid. For instance, it dissolves at 1.592 M in propylene glycol or 2.087 M in ethanol.

Salicylic acid has a molecular weight of 138.122 g/mol, meaning that 219 grams of salicylic acid will dissolve in 1 litre of propylene glycol or 21.9 grams will dissolve in 100 grams of propylene glycol. So if you wanted to add 2% salicylic acid to your product or 2 grams of salicylic acid to 100 grams of product, you'd need to dissolve that 2 grams in around 10 grams of propylene glycol. (To be accurate, 2.19 grams will dissolve in 10 grams of propylene glycol.)

Using salicylic acid in our formulations - This is a great document from ULProspector about using SA, and I feel it offers a good picture of how much work it is to incorporate it into a product. (I prefer white willow bark as it is so much easier to use!)

Mixed-solvency approach (PDF) - This all about the different ways salicylic acid could be dissolved, and what combinations might be better than just one solvent alone. It really is a fascinating read, and the place where this picture arises. This is something I need to experiment with in the near future as I find it so interesting that we can add

Personal Formulator FAQ on salicylic acid: Salicylic acid is only slightly soluble in water, one gram dissolves in 460mL water. To incorporate salicylic acid to a formulation, the following methods can be used: 1) it can be added to the oil phase of the emulsion and heated to 80-85C 2) it can be added to a water phase containing sodium phosphate, borax, alkali acetates or citrates to increase its solubility in water 3) it can be combined with a glycol, such as propylene glycol and alcohol If crystalization occurs over time, the concentration of salicylic acid in glycol may be too high. The typical use level of salicylic acid is 0.5-2%.

Join me Monday when we start looking at adding cosmeceuticals to our facial toners!

Wednesday, January 11, 2017

It's all about the climate, baby!

What's the difference between these two bath bombs? Same recipe, same colourant, similar fragrance oils, same fractionated coconut oil, same molds. Why did the one on the right work out and the one on the right is making me sad with its powderiness?

It's all about the climate!

I became aware of this issue back in 2006 shortly after I started making products. I made a batch of that started to fizz and grow out of the molds only a few minutes after I'd packed them so tightly. After reading and researching, I learned this premature fizzing caused by too much water in the air - the humidity - and that it would be best to save bath bombs for a drier time of year. Well, that wasn't an option as I'm an impatient bugger and want to make things now now now!, plus there's really no such thing as a "less humid time" in this near rainforest place I live, so I adapted my bath bomb recipe to be all about the oils and not the water, and it works well...most of the time.

We have been experiencing a really dry spell of loads of snow and really cold weather for the last four weeks - which is not normal for us in southwestern B.C. - and the day we made our bath bombs at our youth program, the relative humidity was at 27%, the lowest it's been in three months! The kids who used their liquid colourants with reckless abandon were the ones who had the most successful batches because they added the bit of water to the mix that would normally come from the atmosphere.

As a note, you can save the crumbly bath bombs by spraying them with witch hazel or alcohol then pressing them into the molds again. Or you can throw about 50 grams of the mixture into 100 grams of Epsom salts and call it a fizzing bath salt! For a foaming, fizzing, salty experience you can add 20 grams or so of SLSa (sodium lauryl sulfoacetate), too. 

I've noticed Raymond's and my hair is almost completely straight, and I've stopped using my anti-frizz spray as there's no frizz to eliminate! My body wash and facial cleanser feel a bit drying, and my lips are getting chapped quite a lot. I've noticed my lotions packed with humectants don't feel as "bouncy" as they would normally, they feel like they're absorbing way too quickly, and I don't feel I'm getting all the moisturizing and hydrating I should. Thanks, lack of humidity!

Humidity affects so many things, so it's not surprising it affects our products and the way we perceive them. Things rust quicker in more humid environments, which is why we see more airplane storage facilities in Arizona and fewer in places like Vancouver, B.C. Humidity is the reason we see those little "DO NOT EAT" silica packages in our shoes or new electronic devices, and it's why Crazy Glue more effective in Florida, Hawaii, and Vancouver Island. "The cyanoacrylate glue hardens very quickly when trapped between two surfaces. The reaction is caused by the condensed water vapour on the surfaces (namely the hydroxyl ions in water). The water comes from the surrounding air, so obviously the air humidity is a factor that may affect bonding capabilities, or cause them to differ from application to application." (Reference)

There are so many interesting ways climate can impact our products, so let's take a few day to consider this idea. This will also be a concept I'll be including in my future posts when relevant as I think it's super important and can't believe I haven't addressed it before!

I'd love to hear your thoughts on this topic. Whereabouts do you live in the world? What's your humidity like? What have you noticed with your products, and how do you adapt recipes to meet your needs? Are there other impacts you've noticed - for instance, you can't make sugar candy recipes well - from humidity or lack thereof? Please comment below!